No known planet except Earth can be colonized by a human civilization. There are at least three serious issues: temperatures at around 300K, an atmosphere of appropirate pressure, and damaging cosmic radiation (low gravity is also a worry for long-term human presence). Minerals are less of a problem (and water can be synthesized). Mars and the Moon are close enough to the Sun for pressurized greenhouses to provide an environment where humans could stay without space suit. However, the problem of cosmic radiation remains and such "biospheres" must forever dependent on supportive technology. Venus's inhospitable atmosphere makes it completely unfeasible.
Using robots to mine planets and moons in the Solar system is certainly a realistic and interesting option. Sending humans there is very expensive and not necessarily sensible. Moreover, it is not clear whether humanity should send any live (including microorganisms) to such places, as this would inevitably forever change their nature (like sending rabbits/cats to Australia); all ongoing space missions are sterilized before being sent on their way.