The chemical elements in our bodies are inherited from the Earth. The Earth was formed in a disc of gas and dust swirling around the protosun 4.5 billion years ago. The material that formed the Earth was a selection of the material from that protostellar nebula that was itself once part of a larger molecular cloud.
So the atoms in our body were once part of this molecular cloud, so we need to understand how they got there.
After the first ten minutes or so, the universe contained mainly hydrogen, helium and some traces of lithium, deuterium and tritium - and that's all. No oxygen, iron, carbon etc.
Almost all of the heavier chemical elements are made inside stars. We could stop there - the atoms of carbon, oxygen, calcium etc. in our bodies must have been made in stars, and since these atoms/nuclei are stable, they must survive unchanged (you could argue about whether their electrons get swapped about in chemical reactions etc., but since electrons are indistinguishable this hardly matters).
But how do they get into a molecular cloud and what sort of stars make these elements? A couple of answers correctly identify massive stars that explode as supernovae as important. But they are by no means the only contributor, or even the most important contributor for some elements.
If we take carbon and nitrogen, these are manufactured in nuclear reactions inside stars of even a bit less than a solar mass during the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch stages. These stars may be less massive and produce less C and N than massive stars, but there are many more of them. The central material is mixed to the surface during thermal pulses and the outer envelope, enriched in a variety of chemical elements, is gradually lost into space via a slow wind. This is a major source of carbon, nitrogen, fluorine, lithium and a number of heavy elements - Ba, La, Zr, Sr, Pb and many others - produced in the s-process. About 50% of the elements heavier than iron are made in the s-process, which can occur in both massive stars that explode (mainly isotopes with $A<90$) and the less massive AGB stars with slow, massive winds (elements up to lead and bismuth).
Iron, nickel and many other elements such as sulphur and silicon are also produced during type Ia supernovae. This is the detonation of a white dwarf, the end stage of a low-mass star, after mass transfer or merger. Milder novae explosions caused by the ignition of material accreted onto a white dwarf also enrich the interstellar medium.
All these different processes produce distinctive patterns of element abundances.
The enriched material is swept up by neighbouring supernova explosions, by interactions with spiral arms and other molecular clouds. It cools, condenses and collapses to form a new generation of stars.
Analysis of "presolar grains" found inside meteorites tells us what our solar system formed from. These analyses tell us that all of the above processes were important in making the chemical elements that made up the Earth and hence those in our bodies.
[Further details on the production of elements heavier than iron (including supernovae, low-mass AGB stars, colliding neutron stars etc.) can be found in my Physics SE answer to this question. ]