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I have come across a number of star catalogs that list stars by right ascension and declination, along with other data such as magnitude.

Is there a star catalog that lists the 3-D position of stars (e.g. includes distance from the sun, or otherwise specifies a 3-D position)?

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Which catalgoues have you come across? One of the most popular ones known as HIPPARCOS(link ahead) lists parallax which is indicative of distance. – Cheeku Mar 31 '14 at 7:33
Thank you, I missed that set. Do I understand correctly that parallax in the HIPPARCOS set can be measured for stars out to about 1600 light years? – Eric J. Mar 31 '14 at 15:26
I am sorry but I have only used it for amateur observations and didn't pay attention to that detail. Plus, I can't find that out in the documentation. Maybe it is in the papers. Yet sorry. – Cheeku Mar 31 '14 at 17:35
@EricJ. Has Cheeku's comment resolved your question? If so, it should be made into an answer (by him, so you don't have to worry about that). If not, what detail are you still lacking? Consider working this into the body of your question. – called2voyage Mar 31 '14 at 18:32
@Cheeku: If you convert your comment into an answer, I will certainly upvote it and may accept it if no other answers are proposed that also cover more distant stars. – Eric J. Mar 31 '14 at 20:44
up vote 3 down vote accepted

One of the most popular ones known as HIPPARCOS lists parallax which is indicative of distance.

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