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Could a spectrometer on a probe or space telescope identify minerals, not only elements and molecules, from the spectral lines? Is there any technology for identifying minerals remotely?

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Minerals are molecules aren't they? I'm not sure I understand your question. If you want to probe any molecule, you can look for their characteristic spectral lines, and this should work for minerals as well. Or do you mean minerals beneath the surface which are not visible directly from above? –  Takku Jul 6 at 9:16

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Yes, minerals can be observed using spectroscopy on a telescope, typically from their thermal signature. We can determine what type of mineral based on the elements that make up the mineral as well as the type of crystal structure, which will give a different spectral signature

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