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This effect is frequently discussed in the context of solar time series. In particular, it a relationship between soft x-ray (thermal emission) and hard x-ray (nonthermal emission) from the Sun.

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up vote 8 down vote accepted

The Neupert Effect describes the commonly observed phenomenon that hard X-rays occur predominantly during the rise phase of soft X-rays during a solar flare, as illustrated by the graph below:

Neupert Effect during a flare observed by Yohkoh

In the graph, the first peak is that of the hard X-rays, which you can see occurs during the rise of the other line which represents the soft X-rays.


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Following the previous answer stating that the HXR emission occurs during rise phase of the flare as evidenced by the full-Sun SXR flux observed i.e. by GOES in 1-8 Angstrom, I would add that the HXR maximum is typically observed during the strongest increase of the SXR flux, i.e., during d(flux_SXR)/dt = max.

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