As Einstein realized and like you correctly state, you indeed can't measure the speed of an object by itself since it has to be measured relative to something else.
As a logic result, if you ask the question "How fast is X moving?", you will have to specify that you want the speed with respect to another object because motion cannot be measured without a reference point.
- If you ask how fast Earth is moving with respect to its own axis, the center of the Earth will be your reference point.
- If you want to know how fast the Earth orbits the Sun, the Sun will be your reference point.
- If you want to know how fast the Moon's distance from Earth increases, Earth will be your reference point.
- If you want to know the speed of our solar system in the milky way galaxy, the center of the Milky Way will be your reference point.
"standard" reference point
If no reference point is given, it could be assumed that the "standard reference point" is the location of the observer. In the realms of astronomy, that would be the location of the astronomer.
It should be noted that the astronomer could well be on an space mission outside Earth's atmosphere, or he/she could be using a telescope in Earth's orbit. Therefore, "Earth" can not generally be assumed to be a standard reference point for astronomy because, depending on the precision of the measurements and the location of (for example) the telescope, assuming "Earth" may result in inexact measurements.
As @TidalWave correctly commented, there's also the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRS) which can help you find reference points, calculate distances, etc. according to a celestial reference system, which has been adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) for high-precision positional astronomy. The origin of ICRS resides at the barycenter of the solar system.
Wrapping it up:
If no reference point is defined and if we can assume that the astronomer works according to the rules and definitions of the International Astronomical Union (which would be the regular, if not ideal case), the International Celestial Reference Frame provides you with a "standard reference point" at it's center (which is the barycenter of the solar system).
In rare cases where IAU compliance can not be assumed (something that "might" happen in amateur realms), it has to be assumed that the reference point is the point of observation.