Questions about the origin, history, evolution and fate of the Universe.

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1answer
20 views

Is the Astronomy community still concerned about the lumpyness of matter distribution in the universe?

A decade or so ago, when I was still a science undergrad, one of the open questions in astrophysics was to explain the uneven distribution of galaxies in the observable universe. That is, why did the ...
0
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1answer
85 views

Are galaxies moving away with constant acceleration?

Suppose that we could measure the current acceleration with respect to us of a distant galaxy chosen at random in our observable universe (Ignore the peculiar motion of the galaxy). Is the ...
0
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0answers
7 views

Why is the E-mode polarization spectrum out of phase with the Temperature spectrum?

The E-mode polarization power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background displays the same acoustic peaks that can be seen in the (more famed) temperature power spectrum. However, they are out of ...
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1answer
26 views

Hubble law, cosmological redshift and distance

I have got confused with some cosmology formulas which calculate distance. The most famous formula is indeed the Hubble law which says (nowadays) velocity is proportional to Hubble's parameter at ...
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2answers
91 views

What does Stephen Hawking mean by 'an infinite universe'?

In the recent $100m search for extra terrestrial life project project, Stephen Hawking is quoted in the following way: "We believe that life arose spontaneously on Earth," Hawking said at Monday's ...
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0answers
20 views

How to find the distance between two quasars

I want to calculate the distance between two quasars of which I know the angular position and the red shift. Let $Q_1=(\alpha_1,\delta_1, z_1)$ and $Q_2=(\alpha 2,\delta 2, z_2)$ and suppose $z_2 > ...
2
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0answers
29 views

Why didn't we have inflation when the theory of everything and GUTS broke symmetry? [closed]

Inflation seems to have occurred when the symmetry breaking of the electroweak occurred. But do we know of any reason why we did not have inflation when gravity separated from the other forces or ...
5
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2answers
113 views

Is the diameter of the observable universe a relative quantity?

The diameter of my observable universe is 90 billion ly measured in proper distance. But isn't lenght a relative quantity in the theory of Relativity? Could an observer moving at a different velocity ...
0
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1answer
37 views

Does the universe prefer a velocity?

As I understand it, the distribution of matter is roughly homogeneous across space -- anywhere I stand in the universe, there will about the same amount of matter in every direction around me. Is the ...
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0answers
26 views

Available data on the Milky way around 1920

In a book by Alexander Moszkowski, there is an Einstein quote about a hypothetical size of the universe (100 million Light years). Moszkowski claims that Einstein had deduced that from the ...
0
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1answer
75 views

Is the Universe really expanding at an increasing rate?

Here's what I just read from Wikipedia's page on the Hubble Space Telescope: While Hubble helped to refine estimates of the age of the universe, it also cast doubt on theories about its future. ...
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0answers
66 views

Will Hubble's law always be accurate?

We have Hubble's law: v=Hd where H is the Hubble parameter, which is decreasing in value, but it will be constant in the distant future. So, assumming the Standard Model of Cosmology holds true, ...
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1answer
58 views

Why is dark energy preferred to the cosmological constant?

Dark energy and the cosmological constant are often identified, but Peebles and Ratra explain that "Einstein did not consider the cosmological constant to be part of the stress-energy term... a ...
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2answers
68 views

Is mass+energy conserved when a new universe forms inside a black hole?

My understanding is that there are credible theories out there in which the formation of a singularity in a black hole also represents the beginning of a new universe via a big bang. We can't see the ...
2
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1answer
41 views

Difference in redshift between 2 interacting galaxies

I have a galaxy 'A', say at redshift 1. Let's suppose this galaxy has no peculiar velocity. What would be the redshift of another galaxy 'B', that has a radial velocity of 500 km/s, relative to A? ...
1
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1answer
96 views

Star versus Black Hole

I'm making a simplified animation for college project on how a star reacts with a black hole. I had known that a black hole sucks in everything and thus should be doing the same for stars. But upon my ...
3
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1answer
93 views

Evolution of the Hubble parameter

In the lambda-CDM model describing an accelerating Universe, the Hubble parameter is currently decreasing with time. Will it continue to decrease forever?
4
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1answer
84 views

Missing Terms in Weinberg's treatment of perturbations on Newtonian Cosmology

I was reading Appendix F of Steven Weingberg's book "Cosmology". In this Appendix he works out the perturbations to a cosmological fluid described by non-relativistic hydrodynamics and Newtonian ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Were magnetic monopoles created before, during or after inflation?

In the case that magnetic monopoles exist, when were they created? I thought that all particles were created after inflation, but I've read some comments recently that hint at a pre-inflationary ...
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1answer
183 views

Can the Universe be spatially closed and expand forever?

In the lambda-CDM model, the Universe is spatially flat, and will expand forever. Is possible that a spatially closed Universe expands forever?
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3answers
114 views

what is the current explanation for the formation of cosmic voids?

Why aren't galaxies distributed evenly in space, but instead form those sponge-like structures, with huge voids between filaments?
1
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1answer
128 views

what is a Friedmann model?

Can you explain what is a Friedmann model to a layman? And also give some examples of Friedmann models, specially I would like to know if the lambda-CDM model is considered a Friedmann model.
0
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1answer
29 views

Mass resolution

Can someone define mass resolution in terms of cosmological simulations such as the millennium simulation? Is it just the smallest mass that a dark mater particle can have and still be detected by the ...
1
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1answer
52 views

Was the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation originally gamma rays?

I believe that sometime after Big Bang the entire universe was filled with high energy particles. Now we fast forward to the present; most of these particles still linger and managed to avoid being ...
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1answer
36 views

What do cosmologists mean when they talk about “the running of the spectral index”?

All I know is that the spectral index is related to the CMB, and that it has to be slightly less than 1 to favor inflation.
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1answer
80 views

Are galaxies moving away from us faster than before?

Are all galaxies moving away from us at constant speed even those that may be moving in our direction as the space is being formed? How does nothingness appear to push matter? A black hole sucks as ...
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2answers
99 views

Looking for help in understanding how black holes can move

I'm looking for help in understanding how black holes can move through space. This is probably a trivial question for anyone who knows astronomy, but probably due to my lack of education on the topic, ...
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0answers
37 views

Assumptions necessary for the strong form of Olber's Paradox

From Wikipedia, here's Lord Kelvin's statement of Olbers' Paradox: Were the succession of stars endless, then the background of the sky would present us a uniform luminosity, like that displayed ...
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3answers
146 views

Strong force and metric expansion

If the expansion of the universe (the metric) continues (and perhaps is accelerating), in a very large but finite time the expansion of the metric will clash with the effects of the strong nuclear ...
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2answers
79 views

Is gravity a source of infinite energy at a cosmological scale

As I understand it, gravity cannot be attenuated by any medium (in the way that EM radiation can be, for instance). Does this, then, not make it a source (theoretically, I am not talking of ...
3
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0answers
67 views

How to determine scalar-to-tensor ratio r from CMB polarization spectrum?

CMB polarization spectrum can tell us about the primordial scalar and tensor perturbation. By analyze B and E mode angular spectrum power spectrum and temperature power spectrum we can determine the ...
2
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1answer
68 views

Can Hubble red shift be interpreted as time dilation?

Can we interpret the de Sitter universe as a spherical cosmic horizon null surface of finite radius, centered at Earth, and containing the Hubble volume of space where time is dilated and radial ...
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2answers
164 views

Time dilation at the Big Bang [duplicate]

At the time the Big Bang happened the matter had enormous density. According the GR (I may be wrong here) such density dilates time. If so, could it be that the time periods just after Big Bang which ...
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1answer
35 views

Does cosmological horizon grow or decrease as it radiates?

Black holes decrease as they evaporate and their radius decreases as well. So what is with a cosmological horizon? If cosmological horizon is just a black hole centered at the opposite side of the ...
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1answer
74 views

Age of the universe and age of stars

The age of the universe is 13.798±0.037 billion years, yet the age of HD 140283 is 14.46±0.8 billion years, how this can be the case?
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0answers
26 views

Does the radius of the Universe correspond to its total entropy?

I heard a claim that due to holographic principle, the surface area of the cosmic horizon corresponds to the universe's total entropy. As such the initial state had zero surface area and later ...
2
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1answer
59 views

Can matter leave the cosmic horizon?

Cosmic horizon in the de Sitter space is a sphere, centered at the observer with finite radius where the red shift due to cosmic expansion becomes infinite. Given that no information can be ...
4
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1answer
74 views

Formation of Cosmic Microwave Background

It is said that the cosmic microwave radiation (CMB) was formed when the universe was 379,000 years old. How is this calculated?
4
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1answer
853 views

When will the Milky Way “arrive” at the Great Attractor, and what all happen then?

The Great Attractor is described as a location to towards which the Milky Way, along with all other galaxies in the Laniakea Supercluster are moving. How long will it take for the Milky Way to ...
7
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1answer
101 views

Is there a paper on galaxy mergers in clusters of galaxies?

I'm looking for something to cite about galaxy mergers in clusters of galaxies. I need numbers on the frequency of mergers in the outer parts of galaxy clusters vs. the cluster center. In the center ...
2
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1answer
67 views

Original Hubble diagram units incorrect?

Figure 1 from Hubble 1929 has velocity with units of km. Is this just a typo or was there a reason the plot is printed this way?
2
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1answer
46 views

Beta profile fit of Virgo cluster gas?

I'm looking for the parameters $r_c$, $\rho_0$ and $\beta$ in a $\beta$-profile fit of the Virgo cluster's ICM density. I just can't find a reference for it. Unlike for Coma (Abell 1656) where it's in ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Estimating the tangential and cross component of the galaxy's shear using Gnomonic projection

I would like to know how I can estimate the tangential and cross component of the galaxy's shear using Gnomonic projection of the right ascension and declination ...
5
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0answers
37 views

Going from the second moments of an object to its ellipticities and half-light-radius

I am studying ellipticity distributions of galaxies and am having trouble moving from the second central moment matrix (covariance matrix) to properties for an object such as its half-light radius. I ...
3
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1answer
176 views

How did the reionization epoch make the universe “transparent”?

I've been reading about the reionization epoch of the universe, and it isn't entirely clear to me. As I understand it, very shortly after the big bang the universe was ionized, with the electrons ...
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2answers
169 views

Why doesn't this paradox disprove (some) multiverse quantum gravitational theories?

As I understand it, one theory of the multiverse is that there are an infinite number of universes separated by small distances in other (than our observable 3/4) dimensions and that gravity is weak ...
3
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2answers
100 views

If the Universe is infinite, why isn't it of infinite density?

If we make the assumption that the Universe is infinite, and has an infinite number of hydrogen atoms, then why is it not of infinite density - because, under Schrodinger's wave equation the ...
11
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2answers
146 views

How does the evolution of a solar system not break the second law of thermodynamics?

Please forgive: I am a layman when it comes to physics and cosmology, and have tried finding an answer to this that I can understand, with no luck. As I understand it, the solar system evolved from a ...
3
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1answer
517 views

How likely and severe is the threat of a gamma ray burst to earth?

In the National Geographic article: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/04/090403-gamma-ray-extinction_2.html it is suggested that a gamma ray burst likely caused a mass extinction in earth's ...
7
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2answers
139 views

Recommendation for introductory cosmology text

I am looking for recommendations for an introductory text (or texts) on cosmology on the advanced undergrad or beginning grad level. I am coming from primarily a physics undergrad background (doing ...