Questions about the gas that lays between stars in galaxies.

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How do people derive ionized gas mass from optical emission lines in a galaxy spectrum?

Suppose you had an optical spectrum of a galaxy, and you unambiguously detected emission lines from cooling ionized gas -- both forbidden lines like [O II] 3727AA and [O III] 4959,5007AA, as well as ...
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Dust mass-loss rate from a massive star given a set of parameters?

I've been looking for examples at how mass-loss rates are determined. I'm studying a circumstellar dust shell ejected from a Wolf-Rayet star. I have some parameters like, expansion velocity of the ...