It is said that absorption lines originate from regions higher in the photosphere where the gas is cooler. The gas should be in the process of ionization,recombination,ionization,recombination.... ...
A gamma ray burst produces somewhere around 1044 J of energy, according to Wikipedia. Only a small portion of that energy will be absorbed by other objects. The rest of that energy will go on to ...
we know that stars fuse hydrogen into helium starting at 3 MK; 13 MK in the Sun's core; carbon fusion starts at above 500 million K, and silicon fusion starts at over 2700 million K for comparison; ...
This is a follow up to: Is there a theoretical maximum size limit for a star? The answer there talks about the radiation pressure preventing a star from forming. What reaction is causing this ...
I have recently been reading that space travel is strongly influenced by "space radiation" and how it poses a threat to human space exploration. Does this radiation originate from stars like our Sun, ...