Questions related to the evolution of stars.

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Why do PMS stars on the Hayashi track remain at a constant temperature while they contract?

Why do pre-main-sequence stars on the Hayashi track remain at a constant temperature while they contract? I've read the Wikipedia article, so no need to repeat the derivation. What I took away from ...
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Why do proto stars on the Hayashi track get dimmer as they contract?

Why do proto stars on the Hayashi track get dimmer as they contract? My expectation is that they would get hotter and brighter the more they contact. Why is this wrong?
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Gyrochronology?

I recently became aware of the work of the Kepler Cluster Study. In January of this year it was announced that a long awaited method of finding ages of "cool" stars is now available. This is huge and ...
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Temporal path through Hertzsprung-Russell diagram?

Is there graphic of typical temporal paths that stars take through the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram?
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Can any stars ever form supermassive black holes?

I heard that most supermassive blackholes are not formed by stars – in fact, we aren't even sure how they're formed. But could a star, with enough mass and low enough metallicity, form a supermassive ...
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Why do certain massive stars leave no remnants?

Mass and metallicity are the two main determinants for a star's fate. This is simple enough. What's more complicated is how exactly these determine the star's fate. For example, you can see in this ...
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Is a black hole a perfect sphere?

I know all about how black holes form and why their gravity is so strong. However, is the gravity equally powerful in all directions? Will the event horizon appear as a perfect sphere?
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Why is metallicity important in the death of stars?

I always thought that mass was the sole determinant of a star's fate. Then I saw the table here. So why does metallicity influence a star's ability to become a black hole or neutron star? Does it have ...
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How massive does a main sequence star need to be to go type 1 supernova?

We know the mass a white dwarf needs to be. That's well defined by the Chandrasekhar limit, but before a main sequence star turns into a white dwarf it tends to lose a fair bit of its matter in a ...
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What happens to oxygen produced on the Sun (or other stars)?

Through nuclear fusion, the Sun can (or at the very least, someday will) produce atoms of all elements up to and including oxygen. And in terrestrial chemistry at least, when you combine oxygen, ...
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How long does an over contact binary star system last?

I read recently about VFTS 352, an overcontact binary star system where both stars have roughly equal mass. All of the reports I've read (in mass-media type publications) have said that the system has ...
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Recommendation for learning about stellar astrophysics

I would like to know which are the best books to learn about stellar astrophysics at (just) graduate level. I have a basic formation in general astrophysics but I'm interested in learning about ...
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Metallicity of Celestial Objects: Why “Metal = Non-metal”?

Metallicity of objects refers to the amount of chemical elements present in it other than Hydrogen and Helium. Note: The other elements may or may not be actual ...
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Are stars NML Cygni, UY Scuti, VY Canis Majoris and VV Cephei near the ends of their lives?

Are the four stars mentioned in the title stars that are going to go supernova, or are they stars that are in mid-life, like our Sun, but just happen to be so much larger than our Sun?
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What's the bleeding-edge model for how Population III stars are born and evolve?

I'm trying to do a brief literature review to find out what the best current models for population III stellar evolution are. I was hoping that someone with more expertise in the area could perhaps ...
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Why do stars become red giants?

Disclaimer: I’m not a career astronomer. I don’t own a telescope. I have no professional credentials. But I do find this stuff fascinating, and I consume all the astronomy documentaries I can. ...
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Conflicting information about the star Delta Pavonis?

Delta Pavonis has about the same mass as the sun so I would think that the evolutionary path would be about the same (the mass is given as O.991 M(Sun)/ not sure how we get this so accurately). It has ...
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Is it possible to witness a star's death?

Given that the stars' distances to Earth are measured in light-years (for example, Sirius is 8.6 light-years away from Earth), what we are seeing as Sirius now is actually its state 8.6 years ago, ...
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Can the explosion of a supernova destroy the Earth? [duplicate]

If there anywhere in near space a supernova that can destroy Earth? Not by the gamma-ray, but literally by supernova explosion itself?
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Will the Sun rotate slower in red giant form?

When the Sun runs out of hydrogen to fuse it will grow bigger in size and my question is does it rotate more slowly, like a spinning ice skater extending their arms to reduce angular velocity? What ...
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Is “Main Sequence” a temporal sequence?

Stars plotted by luminosity and surface temperature fit into patterns in a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. A rough diagonal subset of this plot is called the main sequence. Is this in any sense a ...
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Putting mass-luminosity relation and Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams together leads us to a mass-age relation; so how do stars lose their mass over time?

I think that the title is completely clear, but here's an expansion: I was just reading about Mass-luminosity relation that says massive stars are more luminous than tiny ones. Well, let's talk about ...
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How is the age of a star on the Henyey track calculated?

I was reading Stellar Evolution in Early Phases of Gravitational Contraction, by Chushiro Henyey, where he writes, If $L \propto R^{-\alpha}$ along the path, the age of a star from the time when ...
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death of a red dwarf star / minimum mass needed for a white dwarf?

OK, first, I know there's a variety of sizes and types of red dwarf stars and the universe is too young for any of them to have reached the end of their main sequence phase yet, so it's all ...
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Variables in the Instability Strip

I was thinking about the possibility of determining what phase of evolution a variable star is in when it is located in the instability strip (say, a Cepheid object). Can you differentiate whether it ...
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Where does energy at the beginning of a star's lifecycle (before any nuclear reactions) come from?

David Christian's Maps of Time has this to say about the period during which the first stars started to form from the diffuse clouds of hydrogen and helium that then made up the universe: Under ...
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What type of star does theory predict should be the most massive?

The most massive known stars are Wolf-Rayet stars. However, as Wolf-Rayet stars do not appear to be the first stage of any star's lifecycle, I infer that whatever these Wolf-Rayet stars used to be ...
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If Kepler-444 planets existed for 11.2 billion years, why fear for life on Earth after six billion years?

According to recent news, Kepler-444, a 11.2 billion year old star, has a system of five planets. It has a mass of 3/4 of solar mass. So I believe both Kepler 444 and the Sun will share the fate of ...
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Burning Out Stars

In the book "A Really Short History Of Nearly Everything", I read that the larger the star is, the faster it burns itself. Whys that? Wouldn't there be more energy to burn if it's larger, and just be ...
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Is there a star simulation software that can handle mass ejections and supernovae?

I use MESA right now to play around with stellar dynamics, but it can't do mass ejections and therefore, I can't think of a way to let the simulated stars explode as supernovae. What simulation ...
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Is there an element of chance/chaos in stellar evolution?

Since stars are an ideal example of macroscopic objects, is their evolution determined by their initial mass and metallicity? Are there any non-trivial random internal processes going on that may ...
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stellar evolution fortran code-runge kutta mass step from center to fitting point [closed]

I am trying to integrate the four stellar model equations from the core to a fitting point and from the surface to the fitting point ($x_f$). When I start the outward integration, however, I have to ...
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Without using absolute magnitudes or isochrones, how might we tell a star's age and evolutionary status?

Usual methods of estimating stellar ages involve isochrone approximations. It can also help to estimate a star's radius by correlating its absolute magnitude with effective temperature and apparent ...
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What is the reason for high lithium concentrations in Sun-like stars?

In reading the European Space Organisation paper Lithium depletion in solar-like stars: no planet connection (Baumann et al. 2010), several conclusions based on their observations include: Lithium ...
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Is there enough hydrogen left after a star dies so another star will have enough to light up?

A star consumes quite a lot of hydrogen in its life, and is pretty much "vacuuming" everything in its vicinity. After it dies (eventually by supernova which will spread all its composition over light ...
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Is a white dwarf hotter than a Red Giant?

From what I've read, white stars are hotter than red ones. But a white dwarf would have just heavy elements to fuse, so shouldn't it be less bright?
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Black dwarf binary systems

I know black dwarf stars do not exist yet, and that they are what white dwarfs end up after a long time. The question is really simple: would it be possible to have a binary system in which one of the ...
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Pulsation Modes of Cepheids

There are various modes of Cepheids like single modes: fundamental (F), first overtone (1O), and likewise. And then we have double modes: F/1O, 1O/2O etc. triple modes: 1O/2O/3O etc. ...
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Rate of star collpse

It is believed that our sun will become a red giant with a diameter of about 1 AU. When the fusion slows down, gravity will collapse the sun. Since the energy release from the fusion diminishes slowly ...
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How does the evolution of a solar system not break the second law of thermodynamics?

Please forgive: I am a layman when it comes to physics and cosmology, and have tried finding an answer to this that I can understand, with no luck. As I understand it, the solar system evolved from a ...