Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in an object or system. In simpler words: it's the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object that is commonly measured with a thermometer.

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How much heat emanates from the planets after formation?

The 2nd answer to this question by MBR got me thinking about this. Is there some general guideline for residual heat a planet should emit, say 4.5 billion years after formation. I'm defining heat ...
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124 views

Why can't neutron stars ignite and explode?

Beyond the Chandrasekhar limit, white dwarfs become extremely hot. As a result, previously unfusable carbon can become fusable, causing nuclear reactions. This leads to thermal runaway and ultimately ...
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What is the temperature 55 km beneath the surface of Mars?

What is the temperature 55 km (34.18 miles) beneath the surface of Mars? The reason I ask is that I want to know if it might be habitable for a possible future colony if they could dig that deep ...
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334 views

How to calculate the temperature of a star

I need a way to calculate the effective temperature (surface temperature) of a star for a stellar model. I need something in the form Te=.... I have: Radius in m mass in kg the composition of ...
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219 views

Can we calculate the average temperature of the heliosphere?

It is my understanding that one can measure the temperature of the universe by measuring cosmic microwave background radiation. Could we also use this method for calculating the average temperature of ...
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52 views

Which moons have cold traps? (i.e. low ecliptic inclination in orbital and rotational axes)

Both the Moon and Mercury have polar cold traps in polar craters, with signs of volatiles. This is of course not as interesting on a moon in the outer Solar System which consists of volatiles anyway. ...
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Why is Rosetta's Comet so “warm”?

Rosetta Comet AKA 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko has the surface temperature range of -43 to -93 degree Celsius. Now, if we compare that with the Mercury (I chose Mercury cause it's closest to the Sun ...
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212 views

What is the temperature inside a Black Hole?

Is it insanely hot? Cause of so much gravity? Is it close to absolute zero? Cause the matter is so closely packed, there is hardly any space for particles to move? Is it room temperature? Cause ...
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What are the implications if the Sun was formed in a warm nebula?

Molecular oxygen O2 has been found on comet 67P/C-G in a ratio of 3.8% to water, which is much higher than expected. An explanation proposed is that the Solar System formed from a molecular cloud ...
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101 views

What is the temperature on surface of Pluto facing Sun?

According to wiki page, the mean temperature of Pluto is 44 degree K (-229 degree C). However, given that Pluto is tilted greatly and there is daylight for long periods on part of Pluto facing the Sun ...
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83 views

Is a supernova's core temperature absolute zero just before collapse?

I thought a supernova's core temperature was absolute zero just before it collapsed, as it has run out of all nuclear and thermal energy, but I haven't been able to confirm this online anywhere and I ...
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2answers
142 views

What is space temperature around Earth?

What is the equilibrium temperature that a black body will reach at the Earth's distance from Sun?
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60 views

Galaxy Cluster Temperature

I've read once in an article that the temperature of the medium between the galaxy superclusters is extremely high. What does that temperature really mean? particles' velocity? Why is that so? Is ...
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85 views

What is the highest recorded temperature in space

What is the highest recorded temperature in space? I'm not asking about Planck temperature that is a fraction of a second before the Big Bang. I'm asking about the temperature that has been recorded ...
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3answers
545 views

What is the difference between gas and dust in astronomy?

Is there a strict difference between gas and dust? In Earthly environment most things become gaseous if heated enough. The temperature of interstellar medium seems to range mostly between 10 and 10 ...
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1answer
794 views

Is there a limit to how hot a star can be?

I think that size and mass do not correlate to temperature, but then again these factors contribute to the internal pressure. I would like to know if there is a limit to how hot a star can get and ...
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1answer
86 views

Why is the Boomerang Nebula colder than the CMB?

An earlier answer on temperature mentioned that the temp of the CMB is 2.4K and the temp of the Boomerang nebula as 1K. How did the nebula cool faster than the CMB?
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2answers
715 views

How do we find the exact temperature of a star?

This is a very basic question, but I am a little confused. As far as I know, the temperature of a star is analyzed based on the color of the light it emits. So, if a star is moving away from us, then ...
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86 views
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186 views

What is the minimum size of a ball of gas to become a star?

I know there are two criteria to meet in order for nuclear fusion to occurs. High temperature (many times temperature at Sun's core) High pressure (protons are very close to each other) [Goal] ...
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155 views

Relationship between temperature of nebula and size of star

I was wondering, in the process of star formation, does the temperature of the nebula that produces a star play a role in the size of that star? I mean, it's only logical that the size would depend on ...
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2answers
229 views

Finding the temperature of Earth from temperature of Mars and its distance from Sun

I am to compute the temperature of planet--in fact I've already found out it's Earth--knowing only: the surface temperature of Mars (210 K) and its distance from Sun (1.524 AU) and of course ...
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472 views

What is the temperature of an accretion disc surrounding a supermassive black hole?

What is the temperature of an accretion disc surrounding a supermassive black hole? Is there plasma in the disc?
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2answers
119 views

Limit of hotness!

We know that there is a limit to which an object can be cooled down that is absolute zero, and getting there is also not very easy we may have to wait infinite years to get to that point. But is there ...
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4answers
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What would happen if an ice cube is left in space?

Recently I boarded a flight and noticed Outside air temperature as -53°C at an altitude of 36860ft(11.23km). I don't know what causes such a freezing temperature in that altitude but was wondering ...
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How was the core temperature of the Sun estimated?

It was estimated that the heat inside the core of the Sun inside around 15 000 000 °C - this value is extremely enormous. How did scientists estimate this value?
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207 views

Would a high albedo reflective substance cool down Venus?

If we were to put a highly reflective substance into Venus's upper atmosphere, could we cool it down? I am envisioning adding a highly reflective fine dust or gas, possibly lighter than "air" to the ...
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Would a low albedo substance warm up Mars?

If Mars were coated in a dark substance that absorbs sunlight (including infrared light), would this heat up Mars? I am envisioning a fine dust that is dispersed into the atmosphere, but possibly ...
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162 views

how to measure temperature of the distant star [duplicate]

As part of small project i want to measure temperature of the distant star on basis of optical observations. so by what exact method i can do it? which instruments will be necessary? what is the ...
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Intrasolar planetary surface temperature change divergence from Earth

Considering the vast amount of insulating gas emitted by human activity on Earth without a coincident release on all other planets in the solar system as well as the phenomenon that planets in a solar ...
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2answers
152 views

What is the temperature of outerspace?

I want to know whether the temperature in Outer space is higher than earth's or cold.Is the temperature in outer space vary as it does on earth?
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1answer
98 views

Do planetary surface temperatures change in unison in a solar system?

Are there any known correlations between the changes in planetary surface temperatures in a solar system? If so, do the farthest planets have smaller albeit correlated changes?
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How do stellar temperatures vary?

The temperature of the surface of the Sun (photosphere) is between 4500° - 6000° Kelvin. Inside the core, it's around 15.7 million degrees Kelvin. In other types of stars (neutron stars, white ...
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96 views

What does it mean for a black hole to “evaporate”?

It says in this Wikipedia's article: Entropy, however, implies heat and therefore temperature. The loss of energy also suggests that black holes do not last forever, but rather "evaporate" slowly. ...
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175 views

Day and night temperature on an earthlike planet with longer rotational period [closed]

I'm trying to understand the climatic effects of the far future scenario of an Earth-like planet with a reduced rotational speed caused by tidal locking with the moon (day-night period of 28 days, one ...
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288 views

What is the upper and lower limit of temperatures found on stars?

What are the most extreme temperatures (both hot and cold) stars have been detected at? Is there an upper and lower limit for the detected temperature of stars?
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135 views

How hot can a planet be?

Given that some exoplanets, particular "Hot Jupiters", orbit very closely to their parent star, how hot can these planets become? What is the hottest exoplanet discovered so far?