I need a way to calculate the effective temperature (surface temperature) of a star for a stellar model. I need something in the form Te=.... I have: Radius in m mass in kg the composition of ...
Molecular oxygen O2 has been found on comet 67P/C-G in a ratio of 3.8% to water, which is much higher than expected. An explanation proposed is that the Solar System formed from a molecular cloud ...
Considering the vast amount of insulating gas emitted by human activity on Earth without a coincident release on all other planets in the solar system as well as the phenomenon that planets in a solar ...
The 2nd answer to this question by MBR got me thinking about this. Is there some general guideline for residual heat a planet should emit, say 4.5 billion years after formation. I'm defining heat ...