# All Questions

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### What decided how the Kepler space telescope was pointed?

I suppose that the Kepler field was well chosen. It is rich in stars and has minimal background light since it is pointing out from the disc. But other things could have been considered. For example, ...
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### How strong does a light source on the Moon have to be to be visible from Earth?

Flashes from some meteoroid impacts on the Moon can be seen with the naked eye. How much light must a future lunar base emit in order to be visible as a dot in the lunar night (like the flag of ...
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### Is the North star going to stay in the North sky?

Considering how the our solar system, and how every other star in the galaxy is traveling through the cosmos, it seems like it's a miracle that the stars and constellations in the sky stay as constant ...
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### Were magnetic monopoles created before, during or after inflation?

In the case that magnetic monopoles exist, when were they created? I thought that all particles were created after inflation, but I've read some comments recently that hint at a pre-inflationary ...
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### How are errors on X-ray photon index propagated to X-ray spectral index?

I have seen that in X-ray astronomy, astronomers often talk in terms of photon index $\Gamma$, which is related to spectral index $\alpha$ by relation $\Gamma$ = $\alpha$ + 1. Are the errors on ...
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### X-ray flare questions

I search the reference papers about flare, but nobody said something about below clearly. Could anyone give some help? If a single X-ray decay without eclipse or other irrelevant factors is not able ...
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### Can asteroids contain atmosphere?

Gas is abundance in the universe, can a massive asteroid draws in these gas forming a thin atmosphere?
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### Would a human body float in the dense atmosphere of Venus?

To survive high in the atmosphere of Venus, all you would nead to wear is suit that protects you from the sulfuric acid vapors in the air and a supply of breathable air. Assuming (for simplicity) that ...
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### Is there a theory / equation showing whether or not two passing bodies will go into orbit around each other?

I am looking for a theory that shows whether or not two passing celestial bodies will go into orbit. I assume there would have to be a critical point where the gravitational attraction is stronger ...
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### How can we derive photometric redshift?

Is there any good tool than can derive photometric redshift or good reference paper? We need to assess photometric redshift based on GALEX(Fnu and Nuv), Sloan(ugriz) and 2mass(jhk) magnitudes. Could ...
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### How are boulders formed on asteroids?

For example: Are they soft landed meteorites? Or do they form from melted material during a violent impact? Or are they the result of some kind of erosion process?
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### Calculating RA/dec from JPL ephemeris data

I'm using JPL planetary ephemerides to calculate the position of planets. Using DE405 ephemeris (using a parser provided by Project Pluto with all tests passing). I am fetching the position of Mars ...
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### How to tell a nebula from a galaxy?

Not all galaxies are spiral in shape[1][2], some nebulae are huge[3] and nebula are the nursery of stars[4]. How to tell them apart? Note I have already compare the contents for galaxy and a nebula, ...
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### Habitable Planet around Red Dwarf

Is there the possibility for a habitable Planet around a red dwarf? It is not required that the whole surface is habitable, but it shouldn't be a tiny spot. After reading a bit I assume the planet ...
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### What's the difference between grism and grating?

In spectroscopic observations, sometimes you meet grism, sometimes grating. Both of them could cause light dispersion, but what is the difference?
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### Concerning fate of Milky Way Galaxy

Andromeda Galaxy is the largest galaxy in the galaxy cluster[1] called Local Group[2] and our Milky Way Galaxy as well as some satellite/dwarf galaxies are orbiting around each other within Local ...
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### When the universe expands does it create new space, matter, or something else?

I am wondering what exactly is meant when it is said the universe expands. Does it simply create new space for matter to fill, does it also create new matter/dark matter to fill that space, or am I ...
148 views

### How long for a complete solar system cycle

Considering the solar system as a closed system, how long until all the planets pass twice by the same position relative to each other? I would say that you'd have to get the length of the year in ...
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### How can I find out which known stars lie within or close to M8

I'm looking for a way to find stars within a certain region of space, the Lagoona Nebula in this case, based on what we currently know. Are there some databases that allow you to make such queries? ...
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### Circular formation around the moon

I have seen a large circular formation of cloud around the full moon sometimes. Have anyone seen the same? What is the reason behind this formation? Due to lunar attraction? Most of the sky is empty ...
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### Was the Universe expanding before the beginning of inflation?

My point of view is that first there was the Big Bang singularity, and then the period of inflation which resulted in the observable Universe becoming many times bigger. But was the Universe expanding ...
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### How come, in our lifetime, we will see the first stars which ever formed?

Isn't it an unlikely coincidence that we live in such special times, that we will have observatories (JWST) that see all the way back to the first starlight in the universe? Are we dreaming, and is it ...
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### Could there be a closer star to Earth than the Alpha Centauri triple star system, excluding the Sun? [duplicate]

Do we know for certain that the nearest star to Earth, excluding the Sun and the theorized Nemesis, is the Alpha Centauri multiple star system, at +/-4.4 light-years away? Have we been able to ...
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### Are black holes solely responsible for hyper velocity stars?

I read that the stars orbiting around Sagittarius A* (a.k.a the supermassive black hole located at the heart of the Milky Way) move very fast (many times faster than our Sun moves across the galaxy), ...
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### What are the most popular computer programming languages in observational astronomy?

I would like to work in the field of observational astronomy (not so much theoretical astronomy). I currently know two computer programming languages: C# and MATLAB. I have read that computer ...
291 views

### Why are there no green stars?

There are red stars, and orange stars, and yellow stars, and blue stars, and they are all understandable save the fact that there is a 'gap': There are no green stars. Is this because of hydrogen's ...
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### How to calculate position of an unknown star knowing positions of some other stars from an image?

Suppose I know the coordinates (right ascension and declination) of the stars marked with red. How should I calculate the coordinates of an unknown star, marked with yellow? Searching over the web, ...
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### Examples of Equal Mass, Unequal Mass and Double Binary Star Systems

Can anyone give me an example of a star (ideally those with a common name e.g. Rigel, Sirius, etc) of the following multiple star systems. Equal Mass Star System, where two binary stars orbit round a ...
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### Astronomical databases for machine learning?

I was reading this question about open problems in astronomy. The bounty-receiving answer says that I have just left the field where some colleagues are trying to develop some software to use ...
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### Is there a legend for these 88 HST images?

Is there a legend for these 88 Hubble Space Telescope images? I have a 6000px x 4800 px version of this image (reduced & rotated to 480x600 here) that I use for an image slide show. I would ...
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### How much mass will the Sun have when it becomes a white dwarf?

In 4 billion years, when our Sun sheds all of its outer gas layers and turns into a white dwarf, how much mass will the white dwarf have compared to what the sun has today? Will the planets still ...
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### Variable and Multiple Stars in Hipparcos

Is there any way I can tell from Hipparcos catalog which stars are Binary/Multiple Stars and which are Variable stars?
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### If we built one hundred 3m telescopes and point them to a single star what would be the final resolution?

We'll mount all of them in a same location and connect them to each other (like VLT) so they will combined all the results and will produce some staggering images however my question is, would they be ...
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### Years, Months, Day, and Weeks?

Sorry if this is a basic question. 1 year = earth revolution around the sun 1 month = moon revolution around the earth 1 week = 7 days = ??? 1 day = earth rotation about its axis Why do we ...
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### How to calculate magnitude of a star in a triple star system?

I want to find a star's magnitude in a triple star. I already knew the the magnitude of the triple star and the other two star, but I don't quit know how to solve it. Is there a way to find it?
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### Does the Sun's light travel fast enough to have a straight path to Earth?

Hopefully this question isn't too silly. When we travel through space, we use a curved path following an orbit to reach our destinations. As far as I'm aware, we could take a more straight line ...
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### The fastest Probe we could build now

I found this at http://www.nature.com/news/the-exoplanet-next-door-1.11605 Even when launched by one of the most powerful rockets on Earth, boosted by a gravitational slingshot around Jupiter, ...
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### Do neutrinos have as much information as photons do?

If neutrino detectors keep improving so that a fair number of neutrinos can be observed, would they be as informative for astronomy as photons are? They are of course a very valuable complement to ...
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### How to differentiate between images of a gravitationally lensed object

The light coming from a distant galaxy or star can be distorted en route to Earth; this distortion is caused by the curvature of space when a massive object is present. My question is, how can we tell ...
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### Wouldn't the rings of Saturn experience tidal effect?

The "Lord of the Rings" has more than 60 moons, some of which are larger than Mercury. My question is, wouldn't the ring, which is mostly comprised of rocks, experience tidal effect whenever a moon is ...
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### What happens to the Gas Pressure when working out the Eddington Luminosity?

I am looking at how the Eddington Luminosity is derived and I do no understand why we only care about $P_{rad}$? When working out $L_{Edd}$ you take the ratio between $dP_{rad}/dr$ and ...
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### Time according to the gravity of Sagittarius A?

This may be a really dumb question (I'm more of a Biologist than an Astronomer) so I apologize in advance for my little knowledge pertaining to Astronomy, but, if I'm not mistaken, time is effected by ...
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### Why does Earth have more gravitational force than the Moon if I stand on it?

Perhaps this is a silly question but I am trying to understand Einstein's general theory of relativity. I would like to explain my question in more detail. The greater the mass of an object, the ...
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### Is there Dark Matter inside the Earth?

Since Dark Matter is assumed to interact gravitationally, it follows that the gravitation of massive regular matter bodies should have an effect on it. Even if it is otherwise weakly interacting with ...
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### How Does Black Hole Evaporation Look From the Inside?

Imagine you're inside a black hole event horizon. The curvature of spacetime is such that the direction towards the singularity becomes timelike, as reverse movement becomes literally impossible. How ...
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### Can stars be observed from space by x-rays, near infrared and radio wavelengths? [closed]

I have a doubt. Can stars be observed from space by x-rays, near infrared and radio wavelengths?
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### Is the universe like the earth?

Is the universe much like the earth, in that if I were to travel in one and only one direction, I'd eventually end up where I started from?
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### why does venus flick?

I was watching Venus with the naked eye yesterday at about 7 pm and I noticed that it was flickering, almost like a star. I have always learned that planets don't flicker to the naked eye, only stars ...