# All Questions

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### Potential Re-Capture of Rogue Planets

Rogue planets can be designated as rogue planets due to one of two possible scenarios: 1) the "rogue planet" formed as a sub-brown dwarf, or 2) the planet was ejected from its home star system. I want ...
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### How do we know that the speed of the influence of gravity is instant?

When I was in college, I posed to my astronomy professor a thought experiment that had been puzzling my mind for some time: "If the sun magically disappeared, instantly, along with all its influences, ...
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### Under Earth's gravitational pull, how dense would an object have to be to reach its Schwarzschild Radius?

The Schwarzschild Radius is a theoretical radius, that if the mass of the object was compressed into that certain radius, the escape speed from the surface of the compressed object would equal the ...
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### Electron Degeneracy Pressure and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

I have read that what keeps white dwarfs from gravitational collapse is electron degeneracy pressure. How does this pressure prevent further collapse, and how is it related to the Pauli Exclusion ...
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### Name of area close to Local Bubble?

The following image is a map of the area surrounding the Local Bubble. One side of the image is 1700 lightyears. From the Sun to the Hyades (immediately below the sun) it is 150 lightyears. The local ...
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### Calculate telescope orientation based on RA, DEC and Lat/Long

I'm parsing FITS files for a project based on data from a telescope. These files include 'DEC', 'RA' and lat long values. I understand roughly the concept of celestial coordinates and I assume that ...
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### How to polar align an equatorial mounted telescope when you are close to the equator?

I recently moved to southern Mexico (16 degrees N) and I wonder what would be the best way to align my EQ telescope when the polar star is not visible?
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### Derivation of the formula for longitude of ascending node for a satellite

I've been looking into the document IS-GPS-200H to understand how to calculate satellite location in the ECEF coordinate. I am having problem understanding the formula to derive $\Omega$, the ...
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### What are Flamsteed numbers?

Can you tell me about Flamsteed numbers? I just know that it is a specific number used for identification of stars. But what is the theory behind it? In what way is the number given to stars?
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### What would the effects be on Earth if Jupiter was turned into a star?

In Clarke's book 2010, the monolith and its brethren turned Jupiter into the small star nicknamed Lucifer. Ignoring the reality that we won't have any magical ...
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### Difference between quasar and Active Galactic Nuclei?

Are there any differences between quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)? As I understand it, they are both caused by extremely luminous electromagnetic emission from material accreting onto a ...
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### Is a white dwarf hotter than a Red Giant?

From what I've read, white stars are hotter than red ones. But a white dwarf would have just heavy elements to fuse, so shouldn't it be less bright?
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### fit sine wave to data [migrated]

I have some astronomical data which I know has a sinusoidal component to it of the form y = Asin(Ωt+Φ). The period of the sinusoid is equal to a sidereal day. So ...
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### Do we expect life to develop only in certain regions of the galaxy?

If I understand correctly, the Earth lies in an area of the galaxy - the "local bubble" - that is relatively free of dust and gases and where no new stars are being born. What is the current theory ...
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### Why are explosions always used to represent the Big Bang?

In documentaries the Big Bang is often represented as blackness followed by a big explosion with loud noises. This always feels cheap and falling short of explaining the origin of the Universe. Is ...
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### Date and time system on moons

Supposedly, if humans were to establish a colony on one of the moons of a planet (such as gas giants in our own solar system), how could we possibly design date and time system? On Earth, we define ...
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### Why do the rings around the Gas Giants get their 'ring' shape?

In our Solar System, all the gas giants have ring systems. However, why do these rings form rings and not a cloud of debris around the planet?
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### Estimating the tangential and cross component of the galaxy's shear using Gnomonic projection

I would like to know how I can estimate the tangential and cross component of the galaxy's shear using Gnomonic projection of the right ascension and declination ...
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### Hour angle sunrise calculation problem

I am trying to program a sunrise/sunset calculator using this formula tutorial. If you follow the steps, eventually you get to this formula for "H" (the "hour angle"): \$H = \arccos( [\sin(-0.83) - ...
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### Python troubles [migrated]

I've been trying to throw together a python program that will align, crop and create an RGB image from HST and VLA .fits data. Unfortunately I've run into a bit of a problem with it continually ...
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### Are multiple satellites required to handle geostationary orbits?

Do geostationary satellites need to have the equator as the plane of rotation, and the earth's centre to be the centre of rotation? Can it rotate over, say, the Tropic of Cancer, focusing on a single ...
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### Is it a coincidence that both the sun and moon look of same size from earth?

The sun is huge when compared to moon. Despite the huge difference in their size and distance from earth, Is it purely coincidental that they both look almost the same from earth?
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### What is CMB radiation doing to the universe?

It is said that due to CMB radiation our universe has been expanding? Firstly what lead the universe to expand? What do scientists mean by dark energy? Will energy convert into matter?
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### Why don't stars move in the night-sky as the moon does?

I want to know why don't we see a change in the position of stars during the night while we do see a change in the position of the moon. I've checked other online sources and some answers say that it ...
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### Connection between Earth, Moon, Theia, and astroid belt?

Are there other fragments aside from the Moon that resulted from the collision of Earth and "Theia" (as it's called in recent main-stream press stories)? And if not, why not? And what happened to ...
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### Going from the second moments of an object to its ellipticities and half-light-radius

I am studying ellipticity distributions of galaxies and am having trouble moving from the second central moment matrix (covariance matrix) to properties for an object such as its half-light radius. I ...
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### Birth and Evolution of Millisecond Pulsars

How are millisecond pulsars formed, and what is the evolutionary track of a millisecond pulsar?
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### Gallery of 'actual images' from space?

where can a gallery of actual unaltered photographic images taken in (or of) space be found? Specifically ones that are untouched, not colorized (not necessarily black and white), and taken by natural ...
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### Collimator for Dobsonian, same as Newtonian?

I have been looking on line for Collimator for my Meade Dobsonian. The only Collimators I can find are made for Newtonian Lenses. It's a 8" mirror with a 1.25" lens. Will this work for my telescope?
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### Is there any point on earth where the moon stays below the horizon for an extended period of time?

When I was teaching a class why the earth has seasons today, I mentioned how the poles of the earth experience months of daylight and darkness. Then one of my students asked whether the moon ...
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### Why don't we have 2 Summers and 2 Winters?

Due to Earth's elliptical orbit, its distance from Sun varies by almost 5 million Kilometers (147 million Kilometers at closest point & 152 million Kilometers at farthest point, i.e. almost 3% of ...
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### seasons elongating and shortening

I have heard of years with longer summers and winters and shorter springs and falls and vice versa because of a change in the earths axis. Is this from the procession that causes the season switch ...
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### Observational Evidence for the Existence of Black Holes

What is the direct observational evidence that black holes exist? I have read that black holes have been detected through X-ray emission. What is some other observational evidence for black holes?
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### How did the Hulse-Taylor Pulsar Provide Confirming Evidence of General Relativity?

What measurements and observations of the Hulse-Taylor Pulsar agreed precisely with the predictions of general relativity, and how did these measurements support the theory?
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### how does Kepler stop exposure after a 5 minuate or 30 minute cadence time?

There are two kinds of cadence time for Kepler, 5 minutes and 30 minutes. I just know there is no shutter and the CCDs of Kepler can be locked after exposure. handbook But how to realize that? ...
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### Why does this twilight sky flat field have a grid of dark pixels?

The image below is a small region of a twilight flat field. A grid of darker pixels with 728x36 cell dimensions can be seen. The camera used was the SBIG STL-6303 according to the FIT headers, which ...
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### Infinite number of universes? Black holes are guilty?

I was thinking, if the space is infinite, what if there are infinite number of spaces, inside our universe? I mean, everyone knows that black holes exist, but nobody knows what happens when you get ...
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### Aren't there more naked-eye-visible stars in the Milky Way plane?

Most stars which are visible to the naked eye are within 1,000 light years. The Sun is inside the Orion arm which has a diameter of about 3,500 light years. Thus, all stars (with very few exceptions) ...
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### Is the argument of perihelion random?

I am currently designing star and planet systems in the RPG framework GURPS. This game system has a very elaborate set of rules to set up a star system, complete with planets and the like. However, ...
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### What are the current observational limits on the existence of Dyson spheres/swarms/rings?

A Dyson sphere/swarm/ring is a hypothetical structure an extra-terrestrial entity would construct to collect a large fraction of its host star's light, and would likely generate a fairly strong ...
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### Astronomy questions I wondered for hours [closed]

I read a question posted by a community member in my community that shocked me, I think it contains some pretty cool astronomy questions that I cant wait for you scientists to answer. I am asking this ...
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### Determining planetary positions on the celestial sphere by Right Ascension and Declination

How would one go about determining the position of the different planets in our solar system with respect to the celestial sphere based on the following data set? Is there a practical way to calculate ...
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### Can there be an infinity of humans in the Universe? [closed]

I was reading this question about if the number of stars can or cannot be infinite. The answer to this question is: ...
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### Visibility of Apollo 11 module

I wasn't around when man landed on the moon in 1969. When I see the moon, I always wonder, were people able to see the rocket? Yesterday, I looked at the moon in daylight and wondered again. My ...
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### How many galaxies disappear beyond the Hubble Bubble horizon every year now?

The accelerating expansion of space means that the space between us and far away galaxies expands faster than light can travel through space. There is a horizon of possible observation beyond which ...
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### Does the Sun rotate?

The planets rotate as an after effect of their creation, the dust clouds that compressed span as they did so and the inertia has kept it rotating ever since. It's fairly easy to prove that planetary ...
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### how to know the nature of the companion in a neutron star binary?

The companion could be a main sequence star, white dwarf, neutron star or black hole. We detected pulsar-pulsar binaryhere several decades ago. But if one of the pulsar does not radiate towards us, ...
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### How do you model galactic noise based on raw signal data?

I am collecting signal data in the 50 MHz to 300MHz range. The data is stored as a function of time and frequency. What methods can I use to determine what noise is caused by the galaxy once I ...