# All Questions

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### Two body transient solution

In the two body problem, if each body is given an initial condition as a momentum vector, what is the transient part of the solution as it settles into the steady state orbit?
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### How can we be 13.2 billion light years from another galaxy?

How did we get 13.2 billion light years from the faraway galaxies being discovered with Hubble? If we all started near each other at the Big Bang, and we all travelled slower than the speed of light, ...
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### How/where to check where the Sun is (constellation)?

I would like to check in which constellation the Sun was in at some time in the past, any recommendations how to do that?
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### mountains higher than atmosphere

Is it theoretically possible that planets exist with mountains so high that their peaks overtop the planets atmosphere? And which physical laws are relevant for this question? I'm just curious. Thanks ...
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### What is a dead comet?

How is a Dead Comet different from the normal comet? How are they formed? And why is the Halloween asteroid 2015 TB145 called a dead comet?.
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### Is there a ninth planet?

After Pluto's demotion as a planet, we have currently eight planets in our solar system. But Sun's gravitational pull can be felt well beyond Pluto, so is there possible to have a ninth planet beyond ...
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### How to calculate the heliocentric velocity of an object?

My task is to calculate the heliocentric velocity of an object to correct for wavelength in a spectrum. I have the RA, Dec and observation date, and I know that the NED velocity correction ...
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### Is this a wet moon?

Tonight around 12:20 AM I realized that the top part (instead of the side) of the moon was missing. I live at a country in the tropics. I took this picture with my phone so it isn't very good. ...
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### Where can I look up the 3D positions of the closest stars? [duplicate]

The problem: I want to simulate a travel from Earth to the closest 15-25 stars. Which is the fastest way to accomplish this? What i have: I currently have the distance between Earth and the nearby ...
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### The end of the Earth and human history [closed]

If you think that we born on 1920...2000 and knows that the sun will explode 4 to 5 billion years from now. you will say that the time is a strange thing. I can not say that i will die before i know ...
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### How long New Horizons will remain operational? [closed]

As of now the New Horizons probe is well beyond the orbit of Pluto, moving towards the Kuiper belt. In an article I read that New Horizons will eventually follow the path of Voyager probes to the ...
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### Astrophysical “unitised” version of the Gravitational constant

This question relates formalising the gravitational constant, $G$, (which in S.I. units is usually quoted as $\sim6.67\times10^{-11}\,\mathrm{m}^{3}\,\mathrm{kg}^{-1}\,\mathrm{s}^{-2}$) in units which ...
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### I can't find Rigel on Tycho 2 catalogue

I'm trying to develop a planetarium using Tycho 2 catalogue. To read it I use the WCSTools. But I have a problem. On Wikipedia I have found that Rigel star has RA: 05h 14min 32,3s and Dec: -08º 12’ ...
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### A universal reference point [duplicate]

I would like to use a system of co-ordinates (x,y,z,t) based on a specific well known point. My original choice (the center of the universe in the big bang theory, Bigbang0), was wrong as the universe ...
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### Mini black holes, a possible result of the LHC experiment at CERN

A scientist at CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) was asked during an interview about the possible results and consequences of operating the LHC at full power of collision in the near future, one of the ...
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### Illusion of a lunar eclipse [closed]

A little over half a year ago, I think it was mid March 2015, I glanced out of my window at about 4 am, to see what appeared to be a very bright total lunar eclipse, as in, the moon was full and ...
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### What does oxygen on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko mean?

Recently, the Rosetta mission found oxygen on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. According to theories, oxygen should not be in the state in which it is on the comet. What are the previous theories ...
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### Gravitational Propulsion [closed]

I am not a physicist, in fact I am just a family doctor, so I beg of you to excuse me of anything I say that you may find outrageous :) But I came to this forum to see if anyone would be able to ...
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### Is there a publicly available Gliese Star List

Is there a publicly available list of the Gliese catalogue of nearby stars with their constellations? or a Gliese to Hipparcos List ?
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### Is it possible to get the distance to a star in the IPHAS DR2 catalog?

I'm looking at the IPHAS DR2 catalog. It has the Right Ascension and Declination but I'm not seeing any distance information (lightyears or parsecs). I'm wondering, given the columns in the dataset, ...
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### What uncertainty does an error bar signify in astronomy?

When an astronomer talks about her/his topic and shows an X/Y-plot with error bars. What should one assume that those error bars represent? 1 standard deviation? Or 2? Or some specific significance ...
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### Subterranean Oceans On Other Planets/Planetoids: How Do Astronomers Deduce This

Recently I have been looking into planetoids in our asteroid belt and I have found one that caught my interest, Ceres. One of the main points that was said about it was that it had a subterranean ...
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### Which are the best American universities/colleges for observational astronomy? [closed]

I'm a French student and I'm planning to go to the United States for a graduate program in astronomy. When I will arrive in the U.S. I will begin by the first year of graduate. Then I will pursue ...
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### Eternally collapsing objects?

As has been pointed out by some scientists, that black holes aren't stable bodies but are eternally collapsing objects. How does one come to such a conclusion? Is hawking radiation related to this in ...
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### Acquirable Raw Data in Amateur Astrophotography

What raw data can I possibly acquire from an 8" Classical Dobsonian Telescope, and a DSLR? Could anything eye-opening to amateur astronomers be computed or calculated first-hand with such equipment? ...
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### Do boulders erode differently on asteroids than on the Moon?

If I understand it correctly, boulders on the Moon are only found near fresh craters, because micrometeorites erode them over time. Asteroids are believed to have formed sometimes even earlier than ...
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### Is expanding universe adding potential energy?

A system with two massive bodies has potential energy proportional to their separation. Since the universe is expanding, is the potential (and total?) energy of such a system slowly increasing? What ...
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### Linear limb darkening coefficient, u

I was wondering if anyone knew of any resources to understand the linear limb darkening coefficient, $u$. That is to say, how the $\theta$-dependent coefficient $u$ (or sometimes $b_{\nu}$) varies ...
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### How can astronomers determine the difference between “hydrostatic equilibrium” and “just happens to be spherical”?

This is relevant for the definition of a dwarf planet. I presume the answer will be, well, if we can tell the mass of the body and guess the material. I don't find this very satisfactory because ...
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### What makes small interferometers useful? Like NIRISS on JWST

NIRISS is an instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope. It has a "non-redundant aperture mask" which obviously covers most of the area of the sensor. It seems to be advantageous for high contrast ...
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### Image sets for testing stacking algorithms?

I am looking for sets of astronomical images for testing different kinds of stacking algorithms. The idea is simple: if one has $N$ images of the same object, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ...
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### How long does an over contact binary star system last?

I read recently about VFTS 352, an overcontact binary star system where both stars have roughly equal mass. All of the reports I've read (in mass-media type publications) have said that the system has ...
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### Is there any difference between rotation axis 90 degrees and 270 degrees? [closed]

Is there meaningful reason to distinguish 90 and 270 degree rotational axis?
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### Planet-timer “device” from 1970s or 1980s possibly by Edmund Scientific

Many years ago (early 80s or late 70s), I bought a cardboard "device" which I think was called "Planet Timer" and I think was sold by Edmund Scientific. Does anyone have any information on this ...
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### How gravity works in a black hole? [closed]

In astronomy class, we have to state how gravity work in the black hole? I know for one fact is that black hole is strong enough to stretch you thin enough like a noodle. Any ideas?
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In radio/microwave observations, I understand the beamsize is the response of the telescope to a point source - effectively, the telescope's resolution. Now, the Planck satellite (par exemple) ...
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### How to disentangle a very distant star's relative velocity vs. redshift distance

We measure a star's relative velocity towards or away from us via its Doppler-shifted spectrum. This is also how we measure the distance of very distant stars: measuring the shifts in the spectrum ...
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### How to determine atomic number density of an element in a star based on equivalent width measurements

Given an equivalent width measurement $W$ of a spectral line of element $X$ and the effective temperature $T_{eff}$ of a star, how can you determine the atomic number density of $X$ in that star? ...
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### Best approximation for Sun's trajectory around galactic center?

What is the current best approximation for the path the Sun takes around the center of the Milky Way? I have found some information on the approximate position of the Milky Way's center, the speed of ...
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### Why does the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram's x-axis go from large temperatures to lower?

In my textbook, the H–R diagram’s y-axis is $\log(L/L_{\odot})$ and values are higher as we go higher on the scale, but the x-axis is $\log(T_\text{eff})$ and gets smaller as we proceed to the right. ...
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### How can one explain the apparent motion of the Sun from a heliocentric point of view?

From a horizontal frame of reference, the path of the Sun looks like a part of a circle in a tilted plane, as shown in this picture: ...
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### Do orbital resonances always form naturally?

For example, if I throw two planets to orbit a star at random direction, would they form an orbital resonance?
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### Is it possible to see a moonrise or moonset twice in a day?

I've been wondering this for quite some time. Due to the variations in tilt from the earth we know that moonrise/moonset times vary. Is it possible that in any location on the earth one might see ...
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### Is Jupiter just a super earth with hydrogen atmosphere?

Often I see books which state that Jupiter has a rocky core, if it is true, does it originate from super earth with excessive collection of hydrogen?
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### Are meteors and meteorites considered “Small Solar System Bodies”?

The difference between meteorites, meteors, and meteoroids is one of altitude relative to a celestial surface: in space, it's a meteoroid; in the atmosphere, it's a meteor; and on the surface, it's a ...
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### Do the terrestrial planets form later than gas giants in our solar system?

Sorry I forgot where this statements come from, but I also remember the reason behind it is due to young Jupiter moves inwards and destroys the original super earth in inner solar system, and the ...
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### Object in front of the Sun

I seen with my naked eye in mid 2013 from Ca. right after sunrise a black spot in front of the Sun.I observed it for about a hour with my naked eye. Here is a picture that closely resembles what I ...
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### Why does the moon appear on cloudy night sky?

Now, I was looking the sky when I saw the Moon showing up in a sky completely cloudy, like this: But a little different. The clouds were doing an eye shape. What does explain that phenomenon? ...