# All Questions

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### How can astronomers determine the difference between “hydrostatic equilibruim” and “just happens to be spherical”?

This is relevant for the definition of a dwarf planet. I presume the answer will be, well, if we can tell the mass of the body and guess the material. I don't find this very satisfactory because ...
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### The furthest horizon in the Solar system

Where can I observe the furthest horizon in the Solar system ? And what the length of it ? The furthest horizon on Earth can be observed from mount Everest ~ 336 km, On Mars - from mount Olympus ~ 386 ...
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### How big would the asteroid belt planet be?

As I understand it, the asteroid belt exists because the gravitational force of Jupiter prevents the asteroids from accreting (is that a word?) into a planet. If, however, Jupiter didn't exist and ...
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### Is there a lower limit for the altitude of orbiting objects?

As I understand it, one object can orbit another at a variety of altitudes, and the stability of the orbit is determined by (among other things) the speed of the orbiting object. Go too slowly and ...
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### Is it possible to see a moonrise or moonset twice in a day?

I've been wondering this for quite some time. Due to the variations in tilt from the earth we know that moonrise/moonset times vary. Is it possible that in any location on the earth one might see ...
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### What scientific evidence is there to support or refute the Iron Sun Hypothesis?

Professor Oliver Manuel, a professor of nuclear chemistry at the University of Missouri-Rolla, claims in the article Sun Is Made Of Iron, Not Hydrogen, Professor Says that iron, not hydrogen, is ...
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### Do black holes have energy?

So black holes are created by certain dying stars and when the star runs out of nuclear energy gravity wins out and the star implodes. An entire star’s mass collapses down into a smaller and smaller ...
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### What is the current size of the SN1006 supernova remnant?

I was enamored by the wikipedia article of SN1006. Esp. the fact that it was so bright, it could cast shadows on the ground. (Even this idea that you could have possibly read parchment with just the ...
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### How to leave the Universe

If the Universe is flat and expanding at the speed of light, that must mean that we could never leave it, because one would have to travel faster than the speed of light which is not possible. ...
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### Why aren't there galaxy-sized balls of iron out there?

Since we know that stars burn out, collapse, or blow up when too many of their atoms fuse inti iron, then how come, with all the ancient galaxies we've been observing, there isn't one galaxy whose ...
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### What happens if two galaxies collide very quickly?

What would happen if two galaxies collided very quickly (e.g. at near the speed of light)? Would they mostly just pass through eachother unscathed, or would there be very energetic collisions that ...
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### What known comets are binary?

Many asteroids are today known to be binary, to have "moons". But what comets are known to be binary? Or what fraction of them are theoretically thought to be binary? And if possible, then separate ...
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### What is the ratio of cosmic microwave background radiation to normal radiation?

I would like to know the ratio of cosmic microwave background radiation to normal radiation in the universe. I am considering cosmic microwave background radiation to include the microwave, and any ...
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### Venus started with retrograde rotation? [duplicate]

I have heard that when our solar system formed that all planets except Venus were revolving around the sun in the same direction because of the normal rotation of their axes. Venus was rotating and ...
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### Weight of a celestial body

How do astronomers find out the correct weight of a planet tough there isn't any direct means to weigh them?What technique do they use?Just curious!
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### Could light be dark matter?

Is it possible that light itself is dark matter? I am speaking of photons (e.g. visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, etc...). I realize light is understood to be massless, but it is obvious it at ...
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### Can astronomical radio sources be used as a verifiable randomness beacon?

A randomness beacon is a source of random data that is broadcast to multiple parties. Users listening to the beacon receive the same sequence of random strings and no one can predict the values in ...
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### Can we (theoretically) spin the black hole so strong that it will be broken apart by centrifugal force?

I can't imagine the forces involved in black holes' lives. So please, help me to find out, if it is possible or not to destroy black hole in this specific way.
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### When the set of official dwarf planets is expected to increase?

When the set of official dwarf planets is expected to increase or new bodies considered for inclusion?
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### Does the radius of the Universe correspond to its total entropy?

I heard a claim that due to holographic principle, the surface area of the cosmic horizon corresponds to the universe's total entropy. As such the initial state had zero surface area and later ...
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I was looking for accurate and up-to-date data regarding the advancement of the perihelion of the planets in the Solar System, the only ones I've found so far are at least 90 years old bout I really ...
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### Dark Flow: statistical limits on existence

Dark Flow has been thrown around as a term a lot lately, especially with the latest Planck results. New Scientist reported last year that it was now statistically improbable, but the paper by Atrio ...
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### Is there any way a meteor can hit at less than escape velocity?

Note: I have figured out one case: The meteor is splash from an impact on a close-in moon. I'm looking for any path from deep space. My understanding is that anything from deep space will ...
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### Matter and Antimatter Interaction in the early Universe

Well it is said that during the Big Bang, things were created in pairs: one matter and one anti-matter. I think its a part of the Big-Bang Theory. It is also said that matter + anti-matter - Energy ...
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### Apocalypse on earth

What would it feel like on Earth if the Earth accelerated due to sudden changes in the solar system like ejection of another planet? Would there be giant tidal waves and other cataclysmic events?
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### Can matter leave the cosmic horizon?

Cosmic horizon in the de Sitter space is a sphere, centered at the observer with finite radius where the red shift due to cosmic expansion becomes infinite. Given that no information can be ...
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### Is Zeta Reticuli within the Orion Arm?

My research has told me astronomers have labeled the galaxy arm that our system is located the Orion Arm but I have yet to find out if that also applies to Zeta Reticuli or not (not asking about ...
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### Observed sun/moon rise/set times to nearest second?

Where can I find a list of observed (not computed) sun/moon rise/set times to the nearest second, along with the location (latitude, longitude, altitude [or enough information to find these three ...
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### Age of the universe and time dilation

Given our knowledge and the standard cosmological model, we estimate that the age of the universe is about 13.7 billion years old. How much sense does it make to talk about the age of the ...
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### Brain vs galaxy [closed]

The number of neurons in the human brain is equated with the number of stars in the Milky Way. Could the Milky Way act as a consciousness of its own, with the gravitational strength between the stars ...
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### local stellar mapping data

I've been playing around with Near Star Map, and I think I kind of want something more sophisticated, so for all stars within 100ly/30pc, is the following known? velocity (it would be nice to have a ...
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### Exoplanet naming conventions

I'm looking for any exoplanet nomenclature, official, semi-official, proposed, or just a good idea, beyond what can already be found on Wikipedia at ...
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### Accretion of in-falling material for a young main sequence star

I'm reading material that is seemingly contradictory. Some sources indicate that the evolution of a protostar to a main sequence star is characterised by a stellar wind that precludes the accretion ...
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### When do Mercury/Venus reach greatest elevation at sunset/twilight for a given location?

On what day does Mercury reach its greatest elevation (in degrees from the horizon) at sunset a given location? The obvious answer is the day of Mercury's greatest elongation from the Sun, but, ...
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### If the expansion of the universe is speeding up, how long until everything nears the speed of light, and what would happen?

Since dark energy is causing everything to speed up infinitely, wouldn't everything near the speed of light? And since it's nearing the speed of light, wouldn't all kinds of strange things start ...
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### What causes jets from newly born stars?

Newly born stars often have bilateral jets of gas ejected from them at high speeds (hundreds of km per seconds), often ending in Herbig-Haro objects. As I understand it those jets would have something ...
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### Are ascending node of sun, the point of intersection of prime meridian and equator and center of earth all collinear?

I did a bit of googling but couldn't find the exact answer, so are the following 3 points collinear or not ? 1_center of earth 2_ascending(or descending) node of sun 3_point of intersection of ...
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### Why can't the surfaces of stars be observed?

If I'm correctly informed, only three stars: Sol, Betelgeuse and Altair have surfaces which have been resolved by telescopes. All other stars are only point sources of light, even in the greatest of ...
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### Sky Glow calculations

I am leading a project for my High School NASA Club, and am looking for some advice. The goal of our project is to use a Raspberry Pi to control a camera that takes photos of the sky, and uses the ...
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### What is it like at the edge of the universe? [duplicate]

If the universe is expanding, then if you were to be close to the edge of that expansion, what would it look like? What would be happening? Would it be chaotic? Would objects be appearing or ...
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### Can Space-Time Itself Have Energy Qualities Like Momentum?

Hypothetically, if space could be moved or scaled, what would happen to everything inside? I'd like to know if an element of momentum could be transferred to objects by contorting space-time. Other ...
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### How did scientists determine an estimate of the number of planets greater than Sedna's size to exist in the Inner Oort Cloud?

In the article, New Dwarf Planet Found at Solar System's Edge, Hints at Possible Faraway 'Planet X' (Wall, 2014) where they report on research and observations performed by astronomers that discovered ...
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### Would bacteria on incoming meteors burn before impacting?

I was watching an old Ancient Aliens last night and there was a whole episode dedicated to how the "Gods" (aliens) were spreading disease/plagues. A good portion of the show was dedicated to how ...
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### I know when the human history ends. Or not?

If you think that we born on 1920...2000 and knows that the sun will explode 4 to 5 billion years from now. you will say that the time is a strange thing. I can not say that i will die before i know ...
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### How could we observe Dyson spheres? [duplicate]

Hypothetically, if Dyson spheres were already present, how could we observe them? My layman understanding of the reason we believe dark matter exists is that our current estimates of the total mass of ...
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### What current evidence is there that disproves the Big Bang Theory? [closed]

The Big Bang Theory has been described as follows: "Somewhere between 10 and 20 billion years ago, (this number of years has changed many times) all of the matter in the universe was compressed ...
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### Which galaxy is receding from the Milky the fastest? What is known of the mechanism behind its recession?

Galaxies are always in motion relative to the Milky Way, my question is, which galaxy is receding the fastest from our viewpoint? What is the theorised mechanism that causes this?
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### Long term effect on rocks of high pressure and temperature?

The mean surface temperature of Venus is about 460 C and the pressure is about 92 atmospheres. Assuming this situation (or similar) has prevailed for millions of years what changes (if any) would ...