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Relative to the time-dependent equinox of date, the longitudes of a planet's ascending node and perihelion increase by 1.4 degrees per century due to precession, plus or minus smaller amounts due to perturbation by other planets. Relative to the fixed equinox of a standard epoch, those longitudes only change due to perturbation. Another explanation of this ...


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The discovery and recapture of Ceres, and the brilliant discovery and use by Gauss of the Normal distribution, the method of least squares, and a method that would now be thought of as a type of fast fourier transform to predict the position of the planet to within 0.5 degrees, based on just 6 observations is one of the great achievements of "pen and paper ...


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File formats tend to be industry/field-specific, with the format, tools, and expectations of the field coevolving to become more dependent on each other over time. JPEG co-evolved with amateur digital photography, PNG co-evolved with the web. Likewise, FITS co-evolved with astronomical data processing, and so is naturally more suited for that purpose than ...


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FITS has a lot of nice features which formats like PNG don't have, like astronomical coordinates (where in the sky does the image correspond to?) and storing multiple exposures. Most traditional image formats also aren't as flexible. For example, FITS supports floating point data storage, where pixels on an image can have precise values like 1.2324241, ...


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lat2 = 0 and lmst = 0 place the vernal equinox at the zenith, so most points on the ecliptic should have azimuth either obliq degrees north of east or obliq degrees south of west. Try other values for lat2 or lmst and see if the resulting azimuths make sense.



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