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If the observer has always been moving at a high speed, then yes, s/he will measure a different value than you. But if s/he accelerated to a high speed just now, you would obtain the same result. The reason is that the radius of the observable Universe is defined as the distance light has had the time to travel since the Big Bang, and that does not depend ...


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Just because there's an extra dimension on a diagram doesn't mean that it's real. No such thing has been created. It's just an artifact of embedding a manifold with a non-Euclidean geometry into a Euclidean space. One of the biggest stumbling blocks of intuition for people learning general relativity is that the physics only cares about the intrinsic ...


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A cosmological constant should be considered a special case of dark energy. The effective stress-energy tensor for a cosmological constant is proportional to the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$, so in a local inertial frame will be proportional $\mathrm{diag}(-1,+1,+1,+1)$. This is equivalent to perfect fluid with energy density and pressure directly opposite one ...



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