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In the slowly-changing, weak-field regime, the effects of general relativity can be approximated by the following metric (in units of $c=1$): $$\mathrm{d}s^2 = -\left(1+2\Phi\right)\mathrm{d}t^2 + \left(1-2\Phi\right)\mathrm{d}S^2\text{,}$$ where $\mathrm{d}S^2$ is the metric is Euclidean $3$-space and $\Phi$ is the Newtonian gravitational potential. Thus, ...


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It's not really clear what you're aksing. There is no "relative time difference" between anywhere and somewhere else in the universe. There are, of course, time differences between different events (space-time points). The motion of stars in the Milky Way (or any other) galaxy are sub-relativistic, implying that GR effects (such as time dilatation) are ...


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Your third question has a very well known answer here: What means, that although a big time difference had to exist, there is a much smaller one, and in the opposite direction. This is considered the effect of the dark matter. Our Sun is around 30000 ly from the galactic center, the edge of the galaxy is around 50000 ly, so we can read on the diagram, ...


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Particles are generated and destroyed all the time. This is obvious for photons, but also holds for massive particles. Today most particles are stable and long-living, but shortly after the big bang the universe was so hot that particle generation and destruction were in some equlibrium and all particles participated in this process (for photons this ...



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