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You can see an example of tidal locking and atmosphere simulation for a planet closely orbiting a dim star. They show a simulation of the atmosphere and some interesting theories about the movement of gasses due to tidal locking (convection) that occurs between the bright and dark side of the planet. The link goes directly to the discussion of tidal ...


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Yes, the formula you quote applies to some extend. It can also be written in terms of Boltzmann's constant $k_\mathrm{B}$ as $$v_\mathrm{rms} = \sqrt{\frac{3k_\mathrm{B}T}{m_\mathrm{m}}},$$ with $m_\mathrm{m}$ the mass of the molecule in question, gives the mean ("root-mean-square") velocity of the gas molecules as a function of temperature $T$. Comparing ...


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The orbit of the Sun around the Galaxy is quite complicated, because unlike the solar system, the mass is not completely concentrated at the centre. So, in addition to the roughly circular 230 million year orbit in the plane of the Galaxy, there are superimposed motions in and out of the plane and towards and away from the Galactic centre. These roughly ...


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In general relativity the gravitational field of rotating mass is described by Kerr metric. It can be written as: $$ ds^2 = ds^2_{\text{Schwarzschild}} + \frac{4GJ}{c^2r} \sin^2 \theta dt d\phi $$ The last term is responsible for the so called Lense-Thiring Effect, a graviomagnetic effect as already mentioned by Stan Liou. A nice description can be found ...


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An spherical electric charge has the same electric field lines whether spinning or not. The difference between those two cases is entirely in the magnetic field. Thus, one should expect as similar thing to happen for gravity. The parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, weak-field GTR has the metric $$\mathrm{d}s^2 = -(1+2\Phi)\,\mathrm{d}t^2 + ...


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It's called gravitational lensing. Here's a link to the wikipedia article on the subject: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_lens. Gravity affects everything, including light. A massive object such as a star, a galaxy, or in this case, a cluster of galaxies, bends the path of photons that pass very close to the massive object. Bending light is the ...



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