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I'm going to start by going over the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Basically, it says that two fermions (in this case, electrons) can't be in the same quantum state. To expand: No two electrons in an atom can share the same numbers for their four quantum numbers. What are quantum numbers? Well, I'll admit that Wikipedia describes them a lot better than I can, ...

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Earth's gravity is quite weak. It manages to compress air (luckily for us), but that's about it. Since the Earth is not a black hole it can never compress something else to be a black hole. That being said, lets consider some object and assume something compresses it to a black hole. The Schwarzschild radius is defined as $$R_s = \frac{2GM}{c^2}.$$ Now ...

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I can attempt to address the second part of your initial question: "Is it a particle, a wave,...?" Einstein's theory of general relativity states that mass and energy bend space-time. Space-time, in turn, tells matter how to move (John Wheeler put this more elegantly). This concept is completely different from the theories of the other three fundamental ...

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