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3

Since the Sun's temperature will continue to increase and it is estimated that in ~2 billion years it will be so hot on Earth that life will be impossible, I'd say it's going to evolve more toward Venus.

5

If you are asking about short-term effects related to human's effect on the climate, the answer is (obviously) unclear. But in the very long term, Earth is likely to evolve to a more Venus-like state. Over the next billion years or so, the Sun's luminosity will slowly increase, which will heat Earth's surface. As a result, more water vapor will evaporate ...

6

This is a question that cannot be accurately answered. However, the closest to a honest and accurate answer would be that neither, since the Earth is going to "evolve" (curious choice of words) towards the Earth's fate. The presence of humans means any purely physical projections need to be taken with a grain of salt. Our ability to influence the planet ...

8

Either or neither. It's impossible to tell from the present. If runaway climate change occurs, then yes, the conditions on Venus could be a potential analogue for the kind of environment on Earth due to the greenhouse effect. Mars's atmosphere is assumed to have been much thicker in the past, otherwise it could not have sustained liquid water on the ...

7

The inverse-fourth-power law you're referring to is valid for light emitted from a source, reflected non-specularly — i.e. in all directions — from a reflector, and detected by the original emitter. If the reflector is a mirror, the observed flux just follows the normal inverse-square law with the nominator equal to $(2d)^2$ instead of $d^2$, since the ...

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