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The Kepler space telescope had a field of view along the so called Orion arm, or spur, of the galaxy. The same structure which we ourselves are inside. It basically looks along a line where the star density is the greatest within the distance that it could detect transiting planets. Less than 3% of the galactic diameter, I think. Note that the illustration ...


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Flamsteed designations are assigned by John Flamsteed. He was an English Astronomer. Flamsteed Designations (Flamsteed Numbers) are numbers assigned to the stars for the purpose of identification and cataloguing. Flamsteed designation contained 2554 stars. Flamsteed designations for stars are similar to Bayer designations, except that they use numbers ...


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Here's a rough sketch of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy,* showing their approximate sizes and distance from each other to scale:   What the picture (hopefully) illustrates is the incredibly vast gap of empty space — around 2.5 million light years, to be exact — between the galaxies, each of which has a diameter of only(!) around ...


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Update for clarity: For the visible part of a standalone galaxy, the stars can all be measured to orbit that galaxy's core. So if you wanted to measure the furthest extent at this simplified level, it would be very easy. The problem is that there is a lot of mass which is not stars, and which is dark matter. Some of it is so far out, it may be impossible to ...



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