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Circumstances that would make it impossible to predict a large metorite strike? That's the wrong question. The right question is how much lead time is needed. A perfect prediction of an impact does no good if the prediction is too late. Several months of lead time is too late for a long-period comet. Several years of lead time may be too late if the ...


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Tl;DR Detection via polarized light - Antimatter interaction with polarized light could be detected by vector rotation; We're mostly sure, because absence of gamma rays and characteristic Faraday polarization indicates absence of observable antimatter in meaningful amounts. Long answer I do believe @userLTK to be correct on his comment. To my limited ...


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Transmission gratings on their own introduce chromatic aberration. This is because they change the effective focal length and do so as a function of wavelength. The chromatic aberration can be eliminated by introducing a prism of the correct dispersion. Known as a grism, the grating/prism combination provides an unaberrated image at the 0th order in ...


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By viewing the star and the amount of cycles it went through we can determine what access material are available within its solar system. Next we look at the habitat zone of that star and the size of the planet. It the planet is in the habitat zone then there is a chance for liquid water. If it is also roughly the size of Earth or a little larger it can hold ...


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The answer to your question for that specific planet is No. There is no way at this point in time to tell if Kepler-442b is a big barren rock or a water world or like earth for that matter. They only know it is there because it passes in front of the star it is orbiting and that dims the light. That is the only reason they know it is there. This planet ...


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It is possible that the basic colouration of the visible surface would lead you to some conclusions - the presence, or otherwise, of clouds for example. Maybe filtering the light through a diffraction grating would give you some idea of the atmosphere or surface's constituent elements. If you have some serious kit, you could wait and hope that the planet ...


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I think the methodologies you're asking for are still very much being worked out (and you might want to think of this as looking for a model rather than an equation -- the latter is too simplistic). It might be best to find some relevant articles (starting with some that are geared to the layman) and work from there: ...


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According to Vokrouhlicky et al. 2015 Yarkovsky forces can be measured for small bodies with diameters up to 30-40 km. The largest object they have in their list of Yarkovsky detections is 4179 Toutatis with a diameter of (only) 2.8 km. I am not aware if Yarkovsky forces have been measured on anything larger than asteroids.



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