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The first part of your question has been asked before: Is Sun a part of a binary system? and the current (lack of) evidence for such a companion is discussed on the relevant wikipedia page about "Nemesis". To summarise: if it were a small companion star, or even a brown dwarf that had been cooling for 4.5 billion years and it had a 26 million year orbit, ...


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How much? Well how accurately do you need it? How do you want it quantifying? And in what wavelength range? Jupiter scatters a fraction of its incident sunlight. It also has its own luminosity (predominantly in the infrared). A quick calculation: The solar constant (flux at 1 au) is about 1370 W/m$^{2}$. Jupiter is situated about 5.2 au from the Sun (it ...



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