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Even though I'm a professional astronomer (but not an expert on this field), I don't have a good answer. AFAIK, this question is still open. Actually, the fact that most planets in the Solar system rotate in the same sense as they orbit the Sun is an important constraint on possible planet formation scenarios (of which still several are presently discussed ...


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I can't give you an explicit ant mathematical explanation but maybe this simulations give you a hint. If you look at the bottom one with beta=0.01 (faster initial rotation speed) you will see how possibly a binary or even ternary system is formed. I guess this could be picked as an example for planetary formation. ...


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The reason most of the planets in our solar system (with the exception of Venus and Uranus) rotate in a anti-clockwise direction is due to the proto-planetary disk that formed the Sun and all the planets around it. Since the proto-planetary disk was spinning in a anti-clockwise direction any objects that formed out of the same disk would have shown the same ...


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All matter radiates (except if it's at absolute zero temperature), regardless of its composition (you got that of Mercury badly wrong). The most important form of radiation is the black-body radiation which only depends on the temperature of the material, but line emission and absorption may also be important (but depends on the composition and ionisation ...


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Stars' light is produced by thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen, helium and other elements at their nucleus. This processes are impossible in planets since you need high pressures and temperatures >10,000 k


3

First Weight and Mass are 2 different things. In everyday usage, the mass of an object is often referred to as its weight though these are in fact different concepts and quantities. Mass refers to the amount of "matter"(or in lay word stuff) in an object, whereas weight refers to the force experienced by an object due to gravity. We can calculate the Mass ...


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To answer your second question: Upsilon Andromedae c and d have mutual inclination of 30 degrees http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upsilon_Andromedae Note that you cannot calculate mutual inclination by subtracting one inclination from another from exoplanet data catalogs because the "inclination" used in exoplanet studies is a 2D line-of-sight-to Earth ...



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