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2

The site in-the-sky.org has a wide variety of functions and options. In Planetarium mode, I chose a random city at about 24N and in the middle, which helps to get the correct UTC + 05:30 India Time Zone, and then just put in the time and date and turned on alt/az grid. So it is likely to have been Jupiter, as you suspect. Below are two screen shots - ...


4

Stellarium identifies the mystery "moon" as a star, HIP 54057 a.k.a. HD 95848. Your telescope probably showed it on the right instead of the left. The location on Earth is insignificant since you provided the time in UTC. Jupiter passed directly in front of the same star on 2016-04-12, but the occultation was only visible from the Eastern Hemisphere.


4

By a straightforward bit of trigonometry, if the distance from the observer to the (centre of) the planet is x km, then the radius, r km, of the planet subtends $\arcsin(r/x)$, and so the angular size of the planet is twice this: $2\arcsin(r/x)$ For Io x = 420,000 km, and the radius of Jupiter is r = 70,000 km, so the angular size is ...


3

A seventh magnitude star. See this link: http://www.cloudynights.com/topic/533968-jovian-events-414-1516/ Further info: the star in question was probably HIP 54057 (also known as SAO 118636 or HD 95848.) On April 12th it was occulted by Jupiter (that is, Jupiter passed in front of it) for about three hours. So the star would have been in the area of ...


0

The Wikipedia article on apparent retrograde motion seems to have a table containing exactly what you are looking for: The apparent motion is observed when the projection of a planet is compared to the star background. There are no real change in the planetary orbits, but when for example the Earth catches up with Mars, it seems to move retrograde ...


1

I would propose Enceladus. Enceladus has diameter smaller than even Mercury. From the nearside of a tidally-locked moon, the parent planet, Saturn, would appear nearly stationary. Being stationary Saturn might be viewed as the “center of the universe” instead. Being on a moon as oppose to the parent planet, with other moons orbiting along with your own, it ...



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