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5

Pretty much by definition, no. In order for "object A" to orbit "object B", "object B" needs to be substantially more massive than "object A". In order for your red dwarf to orbit something, that "something" needs to be more massive than a red dwarf. With the current composition of the universe, that "something" will be mostly hydrogen, and once you reach ...


5

Part 1: Assuming "larger" means greater in diameter. Stars Estimates on the size of stars are just that, estimates, and estimates based on rather fuzzy observations. VY Canis Majoris has been bumped down to size. The current thinking is that there are seven known stars larger than VY Canis Majoris, the largest of which is UY Scuti. Current models indicate ...


4

They come from Gliese's catalog of nearby stars (various editions and co-author), the number is the star's catalog number.


4

Well, technically, a planet and a star orbit each other. In that sense, yes. If a gas giant is orbiting a red dwarf, then the red dwarf is also orbiting the gas giant. Always. If you quibble that it doesn't count if the star doesn't move much, I throw the quibble back by pointing to Jupiter and Sol. The barycenter of the system is outside the sun, and that ...


2

Neither statement is true, just like the statement that the "Earth orbits the Sun" is not strictly speaking true. In truth, if we are talking about a system with two masses, what happens is that they both orbit their common centre of gravity. Whether we perceive that one object orbits another is really just a question of their mass ratio. In the example ...


2

Stellar fusion and supernovae are governed by quantum particle interactions (on massive scales). In general there are many possible ways for particles to interact, decay, etc. at various probabilities. To understand the physics of a system correctly you must take account of all possibilities (up to an error tolerance in actual practice). One often sees ...


2

Suppose you collect 11.0114 grams of carbon-11, come back 27.11 hours (80 half lives) later, and see what your sample has become. The most likely outcome: You'll find that you have 11.0093 grams of boron-11 and absolutely no carbon 11. You might find an atom or two of carbon-11 amongst those 11.0093 grams of boron-11. What about other results, for example, ...


2

VY Canis Majoris and UY Scuti are variable star designations. The first discovered variable star in a constellation is called R, the second, S, and then unto Z. After Z comes RR and so on. For a full description see this wikipedia page. NML Cygni is also a variable star, but its variable star designation is V1489 Cygni. The letters NML come from its ...


1

You could start from the premise that there was no net angular momentum in the universe at all; but it would still be the case that everything of interest was spinning. On the scales of stars and planets there are (at least) two important mechanisms that result in individual systems having angular momentum. The first is turbulence. If you take a parcel of ...


1

Most of the stars in the Hipparcos catalogue do not have a common name. In the main catalogue file you will also find the Henry Draper (HD) number of the star (if it has one) at columns 391-396. You can use this ID to find the name in the Bright Star Catalogue. The Bright Star Catalogue contains all stars brighter than magnitude 6.5 (naked eye stars) ...


1

Stars have lots of names; it would make the catalogue unwieldy to include them all. If you are interested in particular objects it is reasonably simple to work this out. You can do a "search by identifier" at CDS SIMBAD. If I put in your identifier - Zosma - it comes up with nothing. Zosma is in fact the arabic name for delta Leo. Anyhow, if I input delta ...


1

Simply said if a star would orbit a planet, the planet would become the star and viceversa. Hm... never seen that. But who knows. The universe is so vast and the physics we know only covers an insignificant percent of all phenomena in the universe. You just imagined that, so in another universe this is true. It is your universe!


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As the comments to your question say, the short answer is "yes". A lightyear is, by definition, the distance traveled by a photon in one year. Note, however, that at large distances, the answer becomes more complicated. Due to the expansion of the Universe, the light received from a galaxy far, far away was emitted when that galaxy was closer to us. That ...


1

Measuring the ages of stars is an incredibly difficult process. It is not something that can be summarised adequately in an SE answer. Please take a look at these references. Soderblom et al. (2013); Jeffries (2014). Methods split into - Fundamental - e.g. radioisotope dating - only possible for the Sun Semi-fundamental - kinematic traceback of stars to ...



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