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57

Yes. It does not rotate uniformly though, different portions have a different angular velocity (as a body made of plasma, it can get away with this). Measuring this in theory is pretty easy, we just need to track the motion of the sunspots. This isn't as simple as calculating the changes in relative positions of the sunspots, though, as the Earth is ...


30

No, the sun won't ever become a black hole. The choice between the three fates of stars (white dwarf, neutron star, black hole) is entirely determined by the star's mass. A star on the main sequence (like most stars, including our sun) is constantly in a balance between the inward pressure of gravity and the outward pressure of the energy generated by ...


30

The sun isn't on fire. Fire is actually very rare in the solar system. It requires chemical potential energy, which happens on earth because of life. Photosynthesis uses solar energy to build things out of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen (and some other elements). It's these carbon chain structures that are ultimately flammable, and pretty much, ...


26

Constellations are human constructs to make sense of the night sky. When you are trying to find your way around, it helps to "chunk" stars into patterns and assign those groupings names. When I want to point out a particular object in the sky (say Polaris, the North Star), I start by pointing out a familiar constellation (say Ursa Major, the Big Dipper). ...


18

Typical sunspots have a dark region (umbra) surrounded by a lighter region, the penumbra. While sunspots have a temperature of about 6300 °F (3482.2 °C), the surface of the sun which surrounds it has a temperature of 10,000 °F (5537.8 °C). From this NASA resource: Sunspots are actually regions of the solar surface where the magnetic field of the Sun ...


18

What you're asking, basically, is whether there are any proofs for the heliocentric model of the Solar System. A literal naked-eye observation of the Earth revolving around the Sun would be rather difficult, since human beings have never gone to another planet yet, and have only been to the Moon briefly, decades ago. Here are several proofs; some of them ...


17

The coincidence isn't so much that they appear very similar sizes from Earth, but that we are alive to see them at the point in time in which they appear very similar sizes. The moon is slowly moving away from the Earth, and at some point in the future the moon will be unable to totally eclipse the sun and conversely, if you could step far into prehistory, ...


14

One way to answer would be to consider the brightest star in our sky (other than the Sun), which is Sirius. Then determine how far you would have to be from our Sun for it to be as bright as Sirius is from here. That turns out to be 1.8 light years. That's not even halfway to the nearest star, so if you're in any other star system, then our Sun is just ...


13

Yes, the Sun rotates. This can be observed by tracking a variety of features on the Sun, such as sunspots, X-ray brightpoints, coronal holes, filaments, and small magnetic flux elements. Another way to determine the rotational speed of the Sun is to measure spectral lines at the edge of the Sun's disk and determine their redshift. It is thought that the ...


12

It is still an open question, even though it is clear that it is linked to the magnetic field of the Sun. The following hypothesis are the following: Heating waves mechanism: propagation of magnetohydrodynamic waves can heat significantly the corona. These waves can be produced in the solar photosphere and propagate carrying energy through the solar ...


12

No, it does not. The constellations are fixed (on time scales long enough for humans to consider as fixed, at least) patterns of stars which exist on the celestial sphere. This celestial sphere is a coordinate system which has the Earth at its center. From the Earth's perspective, the sun rises and sets at the same rate as the constellations, but as the ...


12

If the sun was principally composed of Iron, then this would be apparent in the spectrum of light from the sun (which is how we know what stars are made of) (but see comment by @Keith Thompson below, the spectra only tells you about the surface, rather than the core). The fact that all solar physicists bar one seem to think it is made up of hydrogen and ...


11

There is no observational evidence that the sun is a member of a binary (trinary, or more) star system, where "star" means an object that is at least ~80 times the mass of jupiter and emits energy/light via standard hydrogen fusion. Some evidence that people point to is that the majority of stars in the Galaxy (perhaps 60% or so) are binary. However, that ...


11

My understanding is that the Earth's axis points in the same direction in space during its entire orbit around the sun. And this is what causes our seasons. The second statement is correct. The axial tilt is the primary driver of the seasons. The first statement is not exactly correct. There is a small but persistent change in the orientation of the ...


10

NASA's Neptune fact sheet states that Neptune's irradiance is $1.51 W/m^2$. This is roughly three orders of magnitude less than at Earth (at $1367.6 W/m^2$). This sounds like a lot, and it is quite an attenuation. So much that for example solar panels for interplanetary probes are not worthwile at these distances from the sun. However, if you compare this ...


10

This is purely coincidental. Why? Because the moon used to rotate faster and is continually slowing down. Long story short, you just happen to be at a point in history where they two numbers roughly coincide. A few million years ago it wasn't true, and a few million years from now it wont be either. And just to cover all my bases, there's nothing to ...


10

I was curious about the same things. I believe it was in the astronomy stack exchange I was referred to an online data base that gives position and velocity vectors for neighboring stars. From those I put together a spreadsheet. Here's a screen capture: I only entered 48 of the closest stars so it's by no mean an exhaustive list. It looks like your ...


9

Key factors: How close is perihelion? Too close and it may be destroyed on its first pass. We know Halley's Comet, which has a perihelion of about 0.6AU, has been orbiting for over 2000 years, passing the sun every 74-76 years and is still going strong. How big is it? Every pass loses material, so a bigger comet could last longer. What is its composition? ...


9

Hydrodynamic models of the Sun allow one method of estimating its internal properties. To do this, the Mass, radius, surface temperature, and total luminosity (radiative energy emitted)/s of the Sun must be known (determined observationally). Making several assumptions, e.g., that the Sun behaves as a fluid and that local thermodynamic equilibrium applies, ...


9

This is a question that concerns the initial mass function (IMF) - an empirical (that is, defined by observations rather than theory) function that describes the statistical distribution of stellar masses. Edwin Salpeter (1955) was the first to describe the IMF, though if you read Chabrier (2003) there are some reasonably comprehensive explanations of the ...


9

As Mark Adler mentioned, the best way is to compare the brightness to other nearby stars. I'm going to assume that you have instantaneous travel time, and also take into account that you are actually getting closer to stars depending on the direction you go. I'm using this table from Wikipedia. I'm going to go no further on the list than Sirius, and assume ...


9

Here's my answer. I'll try to make it as comprehensive as possible. It's pretty hard to define the edge of the Solar System. Most people would probably define it as where objects are no longer gravitationally bound to the Sun. That just shifts the question a little, though: Where is that dividing line? To try to answer this, I'll go over the regions of the ...


9

Unless the stars comes so close that they actually collide, two stars will not be able to catch each other gravitationally. The reason is energy conservation: As they approach each other, their potential energy is converted into kinetic energy, increasing their velocities. When they are closest, their velocities are at their highest, but since there's ...


8

The Neupert Effect describes the commonly observed phenomenon that hard X-rays occur predominantly during the rise phase of soft X-rays during a solar flare, as illustrated by the graph below: In the graph, the first peak is that of the hard X-rays, which you can see occurs during the rise of the other line which represents the soft X-rays. Source: The ...


8

Pretty much every planet with a moon can have eclipses - you'll have seen photographs of Saturn with shadows cast from its moons, like this one from wodumedia.com: If you were in a balloon where that shadow is, you would see a solar eclipse. It wouldn't be as exciting as from Earth, as the Sun would appear so much smaller from this distance. If you want ...


8

There are (at least) two possible answers. The concept of a "year" has no meaning for the Sun. For Earth, a year is the time it takes to complete one orbit around the Sun. Since the Sun doesn't orbit around the Sun, it doesn't have a year. But the Sun does orbit around the core of the Milky Way Galaxy. One orbit takes from 225 million to 250 million years. ...


8

The mass of the Sun is determined from Kepler's laws: $$\frac{4\pi^2\times(1\,\mathrm{AU})^3}{G\times(1\,\mathrm{year})^2}$$ Each term in this component contributes to both the value of the solar mass and our uncertainty. First, we know to very good precision that the (sidereal) year is 365.256363004 days. We have also defined the astronomical unit (AU) to ...


8

Certainly. Astronomical Unit is probably one of the most used distance units used in astronomy. It is of course only used when discussing the distances within a stellar system, such as the distances between the Sun and its planets or other bodies in the solar system. It is also used to discuss distances in other stellar systems, e.g. the distances between ...



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