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The Sun's luminosity is stable to 0.1% - it varies slightly in response to, or associated with, levels of solar magnetic activity. This variation would not be perceptible and is completely outweighed by the $\pm 3.4$% variation caused by the non-circular orbit of the Earth (the Sun is closest in January). Obviously, if you live in the northern hemisphere, ...


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Short answer: The Sun will lose about half of its mass on the way to becoming a white dwarf. Most of this mass loss will occur in the last few million years of its life, during the Asymptotic Gant Branch phase. At the same time the orbital radius of the Earth around the Sun will grow by a factor of two (as will the outer planets). Unfortunately for the ...


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EDIT: It turns out I answered this question earlier (in a slightly different format): Cancelling out earth rotation speed, Altazimuth mount Imagine you are at 35N,106W at 5h local sidereal time. The celestial north pole is at (0,90) in the celestial frame and (0,35) in your frame. The point (5h,0) is (75,0) in the celestial sphere (1h = 15 degrees), and ...


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At the core of the sun the gravity is so strong that atoms of Hydrogen do not exist, instead we have a mix of protons and electrons initially.What starts the sun shining is the fusion of these protons,in various sequenced patterns. Firstly we have the proton-proton chain, yes, you guessed it, they smash into each other and release energy,and through another ...


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There is no indication nor any astrophysical reason for such a scenario. The most relevant constraints are The Solar velocity is typical for stars in our immediate Galactic neighbourhood. Soft binaries (those with orbital velocity smaller than the local velocity dispersion $\sigma$) dissolve (Heggie's law: soft binaries become softer and hard binaries ...


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I think it's a fun question, if impossible. The only way to turn Jupiter into a star that's even remotely practical is to add to it's mass. Ignoring brown dwarfs that are very limited in energy output, to get a red dwarf going, you'd need to add at least 75-80 or so Jupiter masses. (a bit more than 24,000 earth masses). You'd want to add a fair ...



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