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Short answer: The Sun will lose about half of its mass on the way to becoming a white dwarf. Most of this mass loss will occur in the last few million years of its life, during the Asymptotic Gant Branch phase. At the same time the orbital radius of the Earth around the Sun will grow by a factor of two (as will the outer planets). Unfortunately for the ...

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I don't think this is a bad question, and I think Pela is essentially correct, the effect is very small. Dark energy doesn't expand objects, for example, cause those are bound together, but dark energy should expand space between the sun and the earth though the effect is tiny. If we take this number, 68 KM per second per 1 million light years (link ...

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I welcome further discussion, and evidence supporting, or refuting my answer. If my idea is correct that antimatter is distributed fairly evenly through the voids between galaxies, and that antimatter is the cause of dark energy, then no, dark energy will not move earth out of the way of a sun that is heating up (e.g. it would have no effect, or very little ...

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There is no indication nor any astrophysical reason for such a scenario. The most relevant constraints are The Solar velocity is typical for stars in our immediate Galactic neighbourhood. Soft binaries (those with orbital velocity smaller than the local velocity dispersion $\sigma$) dissolve (Heggie's law: soft binaries become softer and hard binaries ...

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Stan has essentially answered this in his comment, which I will attempt to spell out a little more laboriously. The significant majority of our Sun's energy output comes from the proton-proton chain. This was advocated by Eddington back in the 1920's, but at that time your basic concern was a very real and major problem. Objects with like electrical ...

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