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The difference is based on the different efficiency of the processes. We can describe the luminosity by: $L = \eta m c^2$ where $\eta$ is the conversion efficiency, and describes how much matter can be converted into luminosity (photons). Main sequence stars (if you mean this by "normal operation") extract energy from matter by nuclear fusion. The ...


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First, thanks to @LCD3 for leading me on the right path here. My original answer was inaccurate, and so I got rid of it. A supernova occurs when a very massive star can no longer sustain enough nuclear fusion to combat the force of its own gravity pushing inwards on it. This happens after the star has gone through different stages of fusion. Typically, it ...


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Our sun is a 3rd or 4th generation star, so yes, there is enough hydrogen left over to create more stars. We know this because our solar system is fairly rich in heavy elements, which means that there must have been at least 1, and probably 2 or 3 supernovas that created these heavier elements that created all of the rocky planets, asteroids, comets, etc. ...



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