2 replaced http://astronomy.stackexchange.com/ with https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/
source | link

We don't really know what happened at the time $t=0$. It doesn't really make sense to say that everything "touched each other" at $t=0$, particularly if the Universe is infinite. But we can calculate the distance that a photon — and hence the maximum distance that any information — can travel in the expanding Universe in a given time. This calculations depends only on the Hubble parameter, and the densities of the various components of the Universe, and whether you start your calculation at $t=0$ or $t=10^{-12}\,\mathrm{s}$ makes little difference after a second.

The answer is related to your previous question about the cosmic event horizonquestion about the cosmic event horizon which was also about the particle horizon, i.e. the distance that light has been able to travel since the Big Bang. If you were present when the CMB was emitted, you could also calculate your particle horizon. It would of course be much smaller than today, since light at this time had only traveled for 380,000 years. If the Universe hadn't been expanding, this horizon would of course be 380,000 lightyears, but due to the expansion, it is quite a lot larger, roughly 850,000 lightyears.

This means that, at the time of the CMB, regions farther apart than 850 kly had not had the chance to be in causal contact.

We can also calculate how large an angle 850 kly at the CMB would suspend if observed today. It turns out to be 1.7º. That is, if the Universe had just been expanding like we observe its expansion today — i.e. depending only on the densities of the known components — patches on the CMB map separated by an angle $\theta > 1.7^\circ$ shouldn't look the same.

But they do.

Inflation solves this problem by saying that the Universe initially went through a much, much faster expansion, such that regions much, much farther apart than the 850 kly have been in causal contact. Still, even with inflation, the particle horizon is not infinite. So on scales much, much larger than the observable Universe, it may be inhomogeneous.

We don't really know what happened at the time $t=0$. It doesn't really make sense to say that everything "touched each other" at $t=0$, particularly if the Universe is infinite. But we can calculate the distance that a photon — and hence the maximum distance that any information — can travel in the expanding Universe in a given time. This calculations depends only on the Hubble parameter, and the densities of the various components of the Universe, and whether you start your calculation at $t=0$ or $t=10^{-12}\,\mathrm{s}$ makes little difference after a second.

The answer is related to your previous question about the cosmic event horizon which was also about the particle horizon, i.e. the distance that light has been able to travel since the Big Bang. If you were present when the CMB was emitted, you could also calculate your particle horizon. It would of course be much smaller than today, since light at this time had only traveled for 380,000 years. If the Universe hadn't been expanding, this horizon would of course be 380,000 lightyears, but due to the expansion, it is quite a lot larger, roughly 850,000 lightyears.

This means that, at the time of the CMB, regions farther apart than 850 kly had not had the chance to be in causal contact.

We can also calculate how large an angle 850 kly at the CMB would suspend if observed today. It turns out to be 1.7º. That is, if the Universe had just been expanding like we observe its expansion today — i.e. depending only on the densities of the known components — patches on the CMB map separated by an angle $\theta > 1.7^\circ$ shouldn't look the same.

But they do.

Inflation solves this problem by saying that the Universe initially went through a much, much faster expansion, such that regions much, much farther apart than the 850 kly have been in causal contact. Still, even with inflation, the particle horizon is not infinite. So on scales much, much larger than the observable Universe, it may be inhomogeneous.

We don't really know what happened at the time $t=0$. It doesn't really make sense to say that everything "touched each other" at $t=0$, particularly if the Universe is infinite. But we can calculate the distance that a photon — and hence the maximum distance that any information — can travel in the expanding Universe in a given time. This calculations depends only on the Hubble parameter, and the densities of the various components of the Universe, and whether you start your calculation at $t=0$ or $t=10^{-12}\,\mathrm{s}$ makes little difference after a second.

The answer is related to your previous question about the cosmic event horizon which was also about the particle horizon, i.e. the distance that light has been able to travel since the Big Bang. If you were present when the CMB was emitted, you could also calculate your particle horizon. It would of course be much smaller than today, since light at this time had only traveled for 380,000 years. If the Universe hadn't been expanding, this horizon would of course be 380,000 lightyears, but due to the expansion, it is quite a lot larger, roughly 850,000 lightyears.

This means that, at the time of the CMB, regions farther apart than 850 kly had not had the chance to be in causal contact.

We can also calculate how large an angle 850 kly at the CMB would suspend if observed today. It turns out to be 1.7º. That is, if the Universe had just been expanding like we observe its expansion today — i.e. depending only on the densities of the known components — patches on the CMB map separated by an angle $\theta > 1.7^\circ$ shouldn't look the same.

But they do.

Inflation solves this problem by saying that the Universe initially went through a much, much faster expansion, such that regions much, much farther apart than the 850 kly have been in causal contact. Still, even with inflation, the particle horizon is not infinite. So on scales much, much larger than the observable Universe, it may be inhomogeneous.

1
source | link

We don't really know what happened at the time $t=0$. It doesn't really make sense to say that everything "touched each other" at $t=0$, particularly if the Universe is infinite. But we can calculate the distance that a photon — and hence the maximum distance that any information — can travel in the expanding Universe in a given time. This calculations depends only on the Hubble parameter, and the densities of the various components of the Universe, and whether you start your calculation at $t=0$ or $t=10^{-12}\,\mathrm{s}$ makes little difference after a second.

The answer is related to your previous question about the cosmic event horizon which was also about the particle horizon, i.e. the distance that light has been able to travel since the Big Bang. If you were present when the CMB was emitted, you could also calculate your particle horizon. It would of course be much smaller than today, since light at this time had only traveled for 380,000 years. If the Universe hadn't been expanding, this horizon would of course be 380,000 lightyears, but due to the expansion, it is quite a lot larger, roughly 850,000 lightyears.

This means that, at the time of the CMB, regions farther apart than 850 kly had not had the chance to be in causal contact.

We can also calculate how large an angle 850 kly at the CMB would suspend if observed today. It turns out to be 1.7º. That is, if the Universe had just been expanding like we observe its expansion today — i.e. depending only on the densities of the known components — patches on the CMB map separated by an angle $\theta > 1.7^\circ$ shouldn't look the same.

But they do.

Inflation solves this problem by saying that the Universe initially went through a much, much faster expansion, such that regions much, much farther apart than the 850 kly have been in causal contact. Still, even with inflation, the particle horizon is not infinite. So on scales much, much larger than the observable Universe, it may be inhomogeneous.