One of the clearest way to see what's going on is to look at a Penrose diagram of a Schwarzschild black hole. A Penrose diagram is like a map of the spacetime drawn in such a way as to preserve angles and put the light rays diagonally at $45^\circ$ angles, forming the light cones.
Since we're mapping all of an infinite space(time) into a finite drawing, distances are necessarily distorted, but that's a small price to pay.
Time goes up on the diagram, and a typical infalling trajectory is in blue.
Because every massive object must be locally slower than light, it must stay within those light cones. Hence, no matter how you accelerate, at every point of your trajectory you must go in a direction that stays within those $45^\circ$ diagonals at that point. But once you're inside the horizon, every direction that stays within the light cones leads to the singularity.
Accelerating this way or that just means that you get to choose where you hit the singularity--a little on the left on the diagram or a little to the right. Trying to escape using high acceleration brings you closer to the light's $45^\circ$ lines, which because of time dilation will actually shorten your lifespan. You'll actually get to the singularity sooner if you struggle in that manner.
This particular image came from Prof. Andrew Hamilton. Note that it pictures an eternal Schwarzschild black hole, i.e. one that has always and will exist. An actual black hole is formed by stellar collapse and will eventually evaporate, so its diagram will be slightly different (in particular, there will be no "antihorizon"). However, in all respects relevant here, it's the same situation.