At the center of our galaxy is a powerful radio source named Sagittarius A*, which is believed to be a super massive black hole (SMBH). This blackhole would contain far more mass than your run-of-the-mill supernova remnant. Our galaxy is believed to contain a SMBH containing the mass of likely a bit above 4 million times the mass (Gillessen) (2) (Ghez) of our Sun. For reference, I don't think we've ever discovered a star more massive than 600 times that of our Sun.
It's also important to understand that while many people look at blackholes as mystical or all-consuming, they actually have to follow the same rules as everyone else in the stellar neighborhood. The stars that make up our galaxy don't fall into the black hole for the same reason our planet doesn't fall into the Sun. Our star orbits black hole, our star system's velocity in equilibrium with the attractive force of the galaxy's center of gravity. This should hopefully resolve point 3.
For point 1, we should make clear that the 'black' part of the black hole is only true once you cross the event horizon. This is the case because at this point the escape velocity to escape the gravity of the black hole because greater than the speed of light. The light that isn't within the event horizon and is moving away from it is free to escape. So we can see light around it. But why is there so much light? Well, as it happens there are a lot of rather young and large stars in this area. It is not completely understand why this is the case. Lots of stars, lots of light! There are other factors that can contribute to this too, such as there simply being lots of stars between us and the center, not just in the center itself. The accretion disk of a black hole can also be exceptionally bright. Hopefully that clears up part 1.
Now for part 2. As far as I know, we don't really have any way of determining exactly where our SMBH came from originally. Black holes aren't necessarily formed just from a supernova event, there are a handful of other ways they can be created in nature. What is apparent, however, is that SMBHs contain far too much mass to be from a single star. It has probably consumed plenty of other black holes to grow to what it is now.
One interesting and notable difference between the comparison of a star system and a galaxy is the distribution of mass. While our Sun is believed to contain 99.8% of the mass of our solar system, the SMBH at the center of the Milky Way is not nearly as massive as the total mass of the Milky Way. The ratio can vary a lot, and there are some galaxies which are believed to host no SMBH at all.
Gillessen, Stefan et al. (23 February 2009). "Monitoring stellar orbits around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center". The Astrophysical Journal 692 (2): 1075–1109.
Ghez, A. M. et al. (December 2008). "Measuring Distance and Properties of the Milky Way's Central Supermassive Black Hole with Stellar Orbits". Astrophysical Journal 689 (2): 1044–1062.