After searching through many videos, I finally found one that shows, from the perspective of low earth orbit, the Moon transiting the horizon. It is actually a Moonset, but it shouldn't make a difference.
The Moon does not appear to change its color, neither gold nor red.
This contrasts with my understanding of atmospheric effects. Here on Earth, the Moon does appear more yellow (and when halfway or less above the horizon, even red) during Moonrise. The atmosphere tends to scatter blue light, leaving only yellow and red behind.
So why isn't this happening in the video? From orbit, we should be seeing the Moon through even more atmosphere. But I can't detect a trace of red or yellow in the Moon.
Granted it's not the best quality video that it could be. It could be more zoomed in. But it was the only video I could find that showed the Moon transiting the horizon from space.