I can give a partial answer to this. In general, larger objects are more likely to break up than smaller ones, and comets are more likely to break up than meteors. A feather would likely burn up too, here's why:
30,000 KM above the surface, or roughly 4.7 earth radii, the escape velocity at that height would be the square root of that or roughly 2.17 times less or 46% of the escape velocity from the surface, so a feather dropped from that height would be traveling at nearly 54% of earth's escape velocity when it hit the atmosphere, or about 6 KM per second. That's about 7 times as fast as a bullet and I'd wager, that would burn up a feather pretty quick.
Speed of space collisions is faster than free-fall velocity can reach cause anything that hits the earth from space is also in free fall and you can add to that any relative velocity between the objects. The slowest meteors hit the earth at about 11 KM per second, not surprisingly, the Earth's escape velocity.
Now, if you drop a feather from the highest hot air balloon, then it probably would float down to the earth, accelerating faster at first in the thinner atmosphere, then more slowly as the air got thicker.
Small point to add, angle of approach matters too. A glancing blow and the object can effectively bounce off the atmosphere, not burn up in it.