What is the relation between azimuth angle of the sun the bearing of an vertical object's shadow?
For example if the bearing of the shadow is 75° can we conclude that azimuth angle of the sun is 195°? Is the diagram below correct?
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Your diagram is correct, your maths isn't.
The bearing of the object's shadow is, as your diagram shows, away from the sun. If the bearing of the shadow is 75°, then the sun must have an azimuth of of 75°+180°, or 255°.
Similarly if the bearing of the shadow was 300° (pointing towards the northwest) the sun would be at an azimuth of 300 - 180°, or 120° (in the southeast)