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When we are talking about relativistic motions, say from a relativistic jet, what is meant by the term "bulk Lorentz factor", and the bulk speed, $\beta$?

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I think it is referring to the speed and Lorentz factor $(\beta = v/c$ and $\gamma = [1-\beta^2]^{-1/2})$ of the gas as a whole. Within the gas, there could be particles moving with a variety of velocities.

So if you pick up a ball of gas at 10,000 K (ouch) and throw it at 100 m/s then the bulk speed is 100 m/s, but obviously the particles in the gas have their own individual velocities.

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