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Are there natural satellites in the Solar System that are geologically active? This includes volcanism, existence and motion of tectonic plates, et cetera.

Is it a common or a rather rare feature among such bodies?

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Yes. Moons around Jupiter (Io, Europa and Ganymede), Saturn (Titan and Enceladus) and Neptune (Triton) all have some form of geological activity. Charon also may have geological activity, being in a binary system with Pluto. However, while Earth's geological activity is caused by internal heating and teutonic plates, the geological activity of the moons around Jovian planets comes in the form of tidal forces. Io is the most iconic instance of tidal stress, because Io's plumes are frequent, volatile and make the world look extremely chaotic, with its surface frequently being altered and renewed by its non stop volcanic activity. (Because it is chaotic)

As for tectonic plates, Europa is the closest you get to teutonic plates with moons in our star system. Water replaces lava when it comes to ice worlds. Ice worlds being worlds that have ice instead of rock for their crust. This means that water mantles are a frequent occurrence, with the core of ice worlds being mineral rich stone. This is the case for Triton as well, which has cyro-vulcanism from the sheer tidal stress neptune exerts on the captured dwarf planet.

Enceladus and Titan have water mantles, Enceladus being the world notable for its massive plumes, extreme reflectiveness and tiger stripe surface fractures. Titan may also have teutonic activity for similar reasons to Europa.

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    $\begingroup$ Teutonic? Really? $\endgroup$ – DJohnM Dec 23 '15 at 6:27
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Yes there are. However in some moons it is caused by tidal friction not due to the natural structure of the moon. Take This volcano on Io it is thought to be 1 of 150+ volcanoes on the satellite. However the lava these volcanoes spew is mostly in forms of molten sulfur. Enceladus is a moon of Saturn which experiences volcanic activity due to tidal friction resulting in geysers bursting from poles. Titan is also thought to have volcanism but instead of hot lava they would spout liquidy methane. As far as I know there is no analogue to Earth's plates on any satellites. There are moon quakes.

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It's important to point out that geological activity on moons is not only common, but its at the core of modern space exploration.

Because moon geological activity is often caused by tidal forces, the activity correlates with heat. Tidal forces create friction, which in turn creates heat. Moderate heat is an important part of creating an atmosphere and nurturing life.

The moons Europa and Titan both are geologically active present the best chances for finding organic life in our solar system.

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