The colorful patterns of gas are caused by excitation of gas atoms, e.g. oxygen, from radiation of a nearby star. You would see the same colors as from a distance, as the light is emitted in almost random directions. But you wouldn't see the same region of nebula shining at the same time as seen from Earth, when excitation is caused by a flash of radiation from a central star, because the radiation travels concentrical away from the star, and the distances the light has to travel from the excited part of the nebula to the observer is dependent of the location of the observer.
Light may be scattered non-uniformly by dust-particles, so looking different from differnt positions, e.g. forming a halo around stars, depending of the composition and shape of the particles. The interplanetary dust in our solar system causes zodiacal light.
Our solar system is in an interstellar dust cloud right now, but it's not very dense.
Very dense clouds can form, but would become instable and collapse to a star or a protoplanetary disk, compare this site about dark nebula.