In a time, the word "standard" normally means the civil time, recognized by the government in the place of interest. I'm not sure about other countries, but in general conversation in the USA, "standard" also means that daylight saving time is not in effect. "Daylight" time (as in "Eastern Daylight Time") means the civil time, recognized by the government, and daylight saving time is in effect.
These can be expressed in the ISO 8601 format; the standard gives the example "15:27:46+01:00" meaning the time zone is one hour ahead of (east of) Greenwich.
In astronomy, time can also be the local time of the observer, ignoring the existence of time zones. This is local mean time, and is obtained from Universal Time by adjusting for the longitude of the observer. Usually the exact form of Universal Time that would be used would be UT1.
Local apparent solar time is based on the actual position of the sun; it is the time given by a sundial. It can be about 15 minutes ahead of or behind local mean time.