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I know some measures must exist, but I have no idea what the programs are, what organizations are involved, or how effective they are.

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  • $\begingroup$ GAIA spacetelescope of ESA is expected to detect many new asteroids and better determine the orbits of the already known ones. It will likely find some Near Earth Asteroids. This is a bit of a secondary science goal for GAIA, but it is happening. As a contrast, stargazing Kepler K2 detects asteroids all the time when it is looking in the ecliptic plane. But all that data is discarded AFAIK since K2 cannot determine trajectories or distances. $\endgroup$ – LocalFluff Mar 16 '16 at 11:14
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This site is an asteroid tracking program started up by NASA. It seems to be fairly effective at detecting asteroids. Read up on this article for further information about NASA's plan.

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  • $\begingroup$ What exactly is keeping track of the asteroids from the first site? A network of telescopes? A satellite? $\endgroup$ – Pulchritude Mar 4 '16 at 2:46
  • $\begingroup$ I guess what you mean by 'keeping track' of an asteroid is follow-up observations: all small bodies require follow-up observations to improve their orbital elements from time to time. Such follow-up observations are done serendipitously by asteroid surveys (see my reply below), i.e., they also pick up already known objects and measure their positions, but also amateur astronomers play an important role in refining asteroid orbits. $\endgroup$ – mommermi Mar 18 '16 at 17:32
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NASA doesn't have its own asteroid tracking program. They are rather coordinating activities and provide funding for asteroid research and discovery programs.

The most successful dedicated asteroid discovery programs at the moment are Pan-STARRS (http://pan-starrs.ifa.hawaii.edu/public/) and the Catalina Sky Survey (http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/css/); see http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/ for some discovery statistics. Both these programs, as well as many others, run telescope that survey the night sky for yet unknown asteroids. On average, both programs together find 4 new near-Earth asteroids (and many others) per night.

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