Is there an equation that can give me the possibile distance of the planet from his star knowing planet's temperature (or other datas)?
I found this method for calculating the Habitable Zone but it's based only on star's properties.
The habitable zone is, roughly, defined as the region around a star in which a planet could have liquid surface water. So if the surface temperature of the planet is between 0 and 100*C then the planet is in the habitable zone. The converse, however, is not true.
The reason for this definition is that the sort of chemical reactions that are needed for life work best when there are complex molecules dissolved in some kind of solvent, and the best polar solvent is H2O.
If you know the distance a planet is from its star, the temperature can be estimated from the properties of the star and the atmosphere of the planet. Not every planet in the habitable zone actually has liquid water. Venus, Earth and Mars are all in the Habitable zone of the sun, since they could all have liquid water if they had the right atmosphere. But of course only Earth actually does have liquid water in any substantial amounts.
So just being in the habitable zone, doesn't make a planet certainly suitable for life, and even if water does exist on the surface, it does not mean that humans could inhabit the planet.