Is there any proof of space being created?

Is there any proof for space being created?

Because I guess an explanation for the dark energy (dark = our understanding of it) could be that there is a gigantic amount of matter/dark matter that we cannot see (the gray clumps in the picture) that are attracting our matter (the known universe in the middle) => of course the universe is "expanding" with an acceleration.

Am I talking non-sense?

• Sorry but I believe it is non-sense. Please read more about dark matter or dark energy, for example on the Wikipedia. Oct 17, 2020 at 13:28
• @peterh-ReinstateMonica consider the amount of work put into writing several well-received answers by very active members here, this is probably not dismissible as non-sense, nor should additional answers be prevented by closing. Seems fine to me!
– uhoh
Oct 17, 2020 at 15:07
• @uhoh Yes, it is the case as the answers saved the question. Oct 17, 2020 at 16:42

This is an intriguing proposition, but I would ask how your hypothesis explains that the universe appears to be flat? That is with $$\Omega_M + \Omega_\Lambda = 1$$. The evidence for this comes from measurements of the cosmic microwave background, yet if we sum up all the matter (including dark matter), we only arrive at $$\Omega_M \sim 0.3$$.

I do not think that your proposed arrangement both allows an accelerating expansion of the visible part of the universe (which note, can only be gravitationally influenced by "outside regions" that are within causal contact with it) and for it to be geometrically flat.

In addition, I note you are attempting to explain the expansion in some sort of Newtonian sense - I suppose your clumps of far-away dark matter are meant to be "stretching" the observable universe? But that isn't what happens in GR and any Newtonian interpretation would have to counter the problem that if the matter outside the observable universe was uniformly distributed (i.e. in a spherical shell), then it would exert exactly zero force on everything inside it (the shell theorem); but if it were not symmetric then you have to explain why the expansion of the universe appears to be (very close to) isotropic observationally.

As is always the case in physics, there is no proof.

But if your scenario were true, it would have to be rather fine-tuned in order to create the observed expansion of the Universe.

First of all, the expansion is observed to be highly isotropic, i.e. the expansion rate is the same in all directions. Hence, your lumps couldn't really look like your drawing, but would have to lie in a shell around our Universe.

Second, the matter farthest from us would achieve a larger acceleration since it were closer your surrounding matter. In fact the opposite is observed; in the "local" Universe, the expansion accelerates, whereas in the distant Universe (which due to the finite speed of light also means the early Universe), the expansion actually decelerated.

Third, we would have to be located near the center of the Universe which, while not impossible, would be regarded as a highly improbable coincidence.

Fourth, preferably you would have to come up with some mechanism that could result in such a configuration of matter.

Dark energy, at least in the form of the cosmological constant which is usually assumed, is so far (!) the simplest explanation for the observed fact that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, and that the geometry of space seems to be flat. But several other models that fit the observations exist, and although I personally think dark energy makes the most sense — partly because this is so far from my field that I'll have to rely on what I read — I think most cosmologists are rather open to the possibility that we may one day have to severely reshape or even reject this model.

• "Third, we would have to be located near the center of the Universe" Don't you mean at the center of the dark matter shell? Since the Universe doesn't have a center, and we are by definition at the center of the observable universe. May 16, 2016 at 14:38
• Thanks Pela for your response. I am intrigued by this part, though: "Second, the matter farthest from us would achieve a larger acceleration since it were closer your surrounding matter. In fact the opposite is observed; in the "local" Universe, the expansion accelerates, whereas in the distant Universe (which due to the finite speed of light also means the early Universe), the expansion actually decelerated." May 16, 2016 at 16:54
• Also, couldn't it be that we're surrounded by so much matter in all directions, Graham's numbers * matter in our universe, that it seems that it is fined tuned and the expansion rate seems to be the same in all directions, but actually, we will never have the instruments to measure it May 16, 2016 at 16:57
• @called2voyage: Okay, I see. I think I interpreted the scenario as the black sphere being not only the observable Universe, but all of the Universe, while the lumps/shell of DM were something "outside" the Universe.
– pela
May 16, 2016 at 18:00
• @pela I can see how you might have understood it that way. Regardless, I agree with you that a shell of DM perfectly oriented around us seems too fine-tuned. May 16, 2016 at 18:02