The Sun moves at the speed of 220km/s around the galactic center in a circular orbit. The sun is located at about 30,000 light years from the galactic center. The Sun orbits around the center of the Milky Way once every 225 million years. The period of time is called a cosmic year.
I am curious about the speed at which the star closest to galactic center revolves around galactic center. Has this been calculated or approximated. Also what is the time it takes to complete one revolution for the star around galactic center or what is the cosmic year length for the star that is closest to galactic Center .
Star S2 reaches maximum velocities of 5,000 km/s according to this ESO page.
The orbital period is given as a little over 15 years and this paper gives a peri-center (closest approach to the black hole) of 17 light hours.
There's another star in the area called S0-102 which has a shorter period, but its orbit is less eccentric - so its closest approach to the black hole is further out at 36 light hours. Its maximum velocity will probably be less than S2 but I haven't been able to find a figure.