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Where would it be in the sky from Proxima B (planet near Proxima Centauri) for example?

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The sun would appear roughly half-way between Capella and the W of Cassiopeia. The constellations are a human invention, and don't correspond to actual groups of stars. Since all the nearby stars would be in somewhat different positions the constellations would be mixed up, for example, Sirius would be close to Betelgeuse. You can't really talk about constellations except from the perspective of Earth, but you could say that the sun would be near some of the stars that form Perseus and Camelopardalis.

From more distant exoplanets the constellations would be completely mixed up, so there would be no sense in describing the sun's location in terms of a constellation. The sun would also be too dim to be seen with the naked eye from many exoplanets.

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    $\begingroup$ The above answer is correct, but as a simple rule for close-by stars you can simply look at the opposite projection to where they are in our sky eg for a star that appears to us to be at Dec 25N and RA 6h, then the Sun would be projected as though it were at Dec 25S, RA 18h from that star (but as noted above other nearby stars may also have appeared to have moved position) $\endgroup$ – adrianmcmenamin Oct 15 '16 at 11:56

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