Hill sphere is named after John William Hill (1812–1879) and its simple logic follows from the presence of three bodies (let's assume Sun is the largest mass with Earth as the secondary mass and a satellite of negligible mass orbiting the Earth as the third mass), where the radius of the Hill sphere will be the largest radius at which a satellite could orbit the secondary mass (Earth in this case). If its orbit exceeds the Hills radius, then it will fall to the gravitational influence of the first body (sun) and hence will no longer be a satellite of the secondary body.
One could write Newton's equations using the idea that the satellite has the same angular velocity as the secondary object. This is that, the angular velocity of the Earth around the sun equals to the angular velocity of the satellite around the sun. A demonstration about the derivation is given in the following link as well as that of the Roche limit: