This is not a characteristic of the solar system. It is a characteristic of the definitions of the names you used. Neptune and Uranus are the bodies you believe to be missing. In fact, with the mass of Earth at 6*10^24 kg, Uranus at 9*10^25 kg and Jupiter 2*10^27 kg, you'll notice that Uranus is only ~15 times the mass of Earth while Jupiter is ~20 times the mass of Uranus.
The initial growth rate of planets was limited by how much solid dust there was that could clump together to form them. Planets that formed in colder conditions outside the ice line were able to grow faster because of ices (especially water but also ammonia, etc. depending on how far out) that were prevalent in those parts of the nebula from which the solar system formed. Once they reached a critical mass and were able to hold on to hydrogen and helium gas gravitationally, they would grow much faster.
Jupiter grew fast due to its location just outside the ice line, where it had a comparatively dense supply of ice, and could then quickly gobble up a large supply of gas. Neptune and Uranus did not grow as quickly and had only collected a small amount of gas by the time the solar wind blew the nebula away. This is why they are composed of a much larger percentage ices than Jupiter and Saturn; in fact they are often called the "ice giants" which is the correct intermediate classification. (The "ice" in "ice giant" refers to the substance, which is of course no longer generally solid in the atmospheres of these two bodies.)