No, the blue and red shift of stars is not possible to detect with the naked eye. There are a couple of reasons for this. First the effect is slight: even for an object moving at thousands of km/s (way faster than stars in the milky way move), it is only a tiny change in hue. Next, since the light of stars is a mixture of many different colours (a black body spectrum) if the light from a star is red shifted, then ultra-violet is shifted down and takes the place of blue, the blue moves towards green and so on. The end result is a mix of all the colours, and so very little change in the perceived colour.
The colour of stars has relatively little to do with their composition, and a lot to do with their temperature. Cool stars (either small, or large, old and with puffed up cool outer layers) look red or orange. Hot stars (large and powerful stars) are white or blue-white. Stars have a spectrum that approximates a blackbody, and so the actual composition has relatively little effect on the colour.
The composition of the atmosphere of a star will absorb particular wavelengths of light, and this results in a dark line in the spectrum (not enough is absorbed to change the apparent colour). It is by measuring the position of these lines in the spectrum that red- and blueshift is observed.