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I have a 6cm aperture newtonian refractor telescope through which I saw the Orion Nebula yesterday night. As all you can hope with a telescope of such a small aperture, I saw some faint cloudy structure, but when I looked away from the cloud through the telescope it appeared to be more distinct and dense. Why is it so?

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  • $\begingroup$ looked away from the cloud through the telescope Did you focus your eyes at a point away from the cloud, or did you slightly move the telescope so that the center of the image was no longer on the cloud (but your focus of attention was still the center of the scope)? $\endgroup$ – Jan Doggen Aug 18 '17 at 13:59
  • $\begingroup$ I focused my eyes away from the cloud... $\endgroup$ – Ajinkya Naik Aug 18 '17 at 15:36
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    $\begingroup$ Are you sure you got the units right? 60 cm aperture is far from small. $\endgroup$ – Dan Mašek Aug 18 '17 at 19:21
  • $\begingroup$ whoops....XD i always make the same mistake again and again its 60mm or 6cm $\endgroup$ – Ajinkya Naik Aug 19 '17 at 11:26
  • $\begingroup$ This might explain it: hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/rodcone.html $\endgroup$ – flawr Aug 19 '17 at 15:07
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This is called the Averted vision. It involves not looking directly at the object, but looking a little off to the side.

How does it works?

Because the retina is less sensitive at the center, and this is very remarkable on the very faint objects (like nebulas or galaxies)

This is a common technique used by astronomers.

More info here

How to make the most of Averted vision?

To maximise the effects of your Averted Vision, you first need to know which eye is your dominant eye. To do so:

  • Point with your finger a distant object
  • Then blink an eye, then the other eye.
  • The eye in which your finger is perfectly aligned with the object is your dominant eye.

Then, for the best Averted vision:

  • Look at the top-right of the object if your dominant eye is the right one
  • Look at the top-left of the object if your dominant eye is the left one
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    $\begingroup$ I tried to find out which eye is dominant with that test, but it depended on which arm I used for pointing. The Miles test worked for me. $\endgroup$ – Glorfindel Aug 19 '17 at 9:22
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The effect you describe is called "averted vision". It works because the center of the retina is optimized for details. We use it for reading and anything that needs sharp vision. The other parts of the retina are more sensitive to light and and motion but not to detail

Digital cameras are like this too. Having many tiny pixels makes for a sharp image but the small pixels are less sensitive to low light and create more noise or grain in the image. A digital camera is more sensitive to light if the pixels are physically larger but of course then you can have fewer of these in a same size sensor

The eye in effect has smaller "pixels" that are closer together but less sensitive to light in the center of the visual field and larger more sensitive "pixels" in the off center areas. So, by looking off to the side you can cause the image of the nebula to fall on the part of the retina that is more sensitive to light.

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"Averted vision" is a nice term, and perhaps expertly technical as well. It's the same principle we are taught as shooters/small arms handlers to utilize for night-work when enhanced vision equipment is not available; we simply know it as a function of our peripheral vision, right up there with using the same visual technique to more easily detect motion - especially in a darkened environment. The phenomenon is due to both the distribution and the disparity in numbers of rods versus cones within the human retina. In any event, it's pretty cool once you get used to using it to your advantage :-)

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  • $\begingroup$ This seems to be a comment on one of the other answers, not an answer itself. See help center for more on how Stack Exchange works; it is not a forum. $\endgroup$ – chirlu Aug 18 '17 at 21:19
  • $\begingroup$ @chirlu - He doesn't have enough rep points to post a comment. $\endgroup$ – iMerchant Sep 10 '17 at 7:52
  • $\begingroup$ @iMerchant: Indeed. However, when you don’t have the privilege to comment, you should not evade by writing a non-answer. You can, however, write a (real) answer to any question and thereby get the reputation needed to comment. All this is explained in the help center that I pointed to. $\endgroup$ – chirlu Sep 10 '17 at 9:24

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