I wanted to ask this question even though I realized the correct geometry in the middle of typing it. So I will answer this myself.
First of all, the sub-lunar point never exceeds 28.545 N/S. If you're standing at the sub-lunar point, the Moon will be directly overhead. The Moon never wanders outside this latitude bracket.
But that does not mean the Moon's shadow can't wander outside it. Here's one way it could happen.
Edit: this is my attempt to draw something approximately to scale. I think I got the Earth/Moon sizes about right, but the Moon-Earth distance should around 4x greater. And the solar rays are of course not parallel but I don't think it's possible to draw or perceive tiny angles for this scale.
The green line is the ecliptic. The Sun and Moon are supposed to be aligned along a horizontal line, but for some reason I drew the solar rays half and half beside the green line which is deceptive. I'll try to edit the pic when I can.
In technical parlance, the Moon could be slightly above or slightly below its Node. If the Moon was exactly at its node, then the umbra would absolutely be centered somewhere between 28.5 N/S (actually 23.4 N/S because the Sun never goes beyond that). But as you can see, the farther it gets from its node, the steeper the shadow impacts Earth and the farther towards a pole it gets. Too far from the node, and the shadow will not intercept Earth at all and we won't have an eclipse.
If you draw a line from the center of the Moon to the center of the Earth, you can see that the sub-lunar point is definitely within 28.5 degrees N/S. But the shadow does not necessarily follow that imaginary line. The shadow always follows the line from the Sun to the Moon.
You could even imagine a very extreme case where the shadow falls on "the other side" of the pole. I think that may be the case here since that eclipse looks really short.