My ad-hoc opinion: This wouldn't be the first step of Venus exploration. Geologic in-situ investigation of the resurfacing hypotheses would already be a very challenging mission.
Might be, one could find some metamorphic remnants which have survived the last resurfacing, and one could determine the age of rocks. Might be there exist some old layers below the surface, which haven't been molten up completely.
Some kinds of crystals are more resistant to heat than others. They may also contain some records of more ancient epochs. Comparing their isotopic ratios might tells something about the ancient atmosphere, or at least about ancient geology. But conditions on the surface of Venus are very hard for probes.
More feasible would be a detailed isotopic analysis of Venus' atmosphere, as e.g. proposed as VDAP mission concept, or by follow-up balloon missions. A submarine-like ballon diving into the hellish conditions of the lower atmosphere or even to the surface for a short period might be an approach.
A TLS (tunable laser spectrometer) has been suggested to analyse the atmosphere.
May be an additional mass spectrograph would be useful. If short dives close to the surface become feasible, cameras would make sense. A LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscope) would make sense only on direct contact with the surface due to the atmospheric absorption. APXS wouldn't probably work due to the heat, unless samples could be taken for analysis higher into the (cooler) atmosphere. IR spectroscopy could possibly work, if cooling can be achieved somehow (e.g. by insulation and adiabatic decompression). If surface samples can be taken during short surface contact, more ways to analyse rocks would become possible. The more instruments, the more weight, the larger the ballon, the larger the probe, the more expensive. But I'm far from elaborating technical or scientific proposals here for space agencies.
Hence VDAP with a small TLS and a QMS (quadrupole mass spectrometer) - as already proposed by hugely experienced scientists - would be a good start.