Here you read: "The temperature inside a newly formed neutron star is from around 1011 to 1012 kelvin."
According to McCook and Sion Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs catalog, the hottest White Dwarf is
RE J150208+661224 with 170 kK.
I read somewhere that the coldest WDs have Teffs between 3000 and 4000 K.
If the universe were old enough, the first WDs would be now Black Dwarfs as cold as the space around them, 3 K.
For non-degenerate stars, we have:
Possibly, the hottest known main sequence star is HD 93129 A with 52 kK.
The hypothetical Population III stars could be hotter than that.
For comparison, Sun's temperature is 5778 K (wikipedia).
The coldest known main sequence star is possibly
2MASS J0523-1403 with only 2075 K. Dieterich's paper suggests that the coldest possible star could not be much colder than that, or else it would be not a star, but a Brown Dwarf.
For fusors (objects that fuse Hydrogen - stars - plus objects that fuse Deuterium - Brown Dwarfs), models predict that at the present age of the universe a BD would have cooled down to ~260 K (sorry for not remembering the reference now). Like WDs, BDs could be as cold as the space if the universe were old enough, I guess.
Then, black dwarfs aside, it seems that it is secure to consider objects colder than 260 K as planets.
Note that all temperatures listed here excepting those of the Neutron stars are temperatures measured at the surface of these stars. Their centers are much hotter than that.
Finally, I forgot about another hypothetical objects like Quark stars, Q-stars, etc.
I would not be surprised if (they really exist outside theory) that their central temperatures would be higher than 1012 kelvin.
What would be the temperature of a supermassive Black Hole?